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Neuropsych Exam 2

Vision, Hearing, Temporal Lobe

what kind of waves are sleep waves delta
stage 3 and 4 of sleep show what in their waves caveats
how does sleep change with age the amount of REM a person gets decreases
when does sleep talking and sleep walking happen and why? in nonREM, in REM the neurons inhibit activity below the neck
function of SCN superchiasmatic nucleus regulates circadian rhythm
function of melatonin it is produced by the pineal gland and it is produced cyclically to induce sleep.
incidence of insomnia 1 in 4
what are kinds of insomnia trouble falling asleep or staying asleep
what is obstructive sleep apnea snoring due to throat muscles relaxing and is the most common form of apnea
what is central sleep apnea apnea due to the fact that brain doesnt send proper signal to muscles to control breathing. it's the rare type of sleep apnea
what is sleep apnea in general breathing repeatedly stops and starts, inducing snoring. a person is still tired after full night sleep
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure--face/nasal mask that provides positive flow of air into nasal passages to help with sleep apnea
narcolepsy neurological disorder affecting control of sleep and wakefulness
EDS excessive daytime sleepiness--sleep attack, cataplexy, hypanogogic, hallucination, sleep paralysis
incidence of narcolepsy 20-45/100,000
cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone leading to feelings of weakness and loss of voluntary muscle control. can range from slurred speech to total body collapse. is often triggered by intense emotions
narcolepsy without cataplexy has what symptoms hallucinations, EDS, sleep paralysis
narcolepsy caused by medical condition are often caused by chemicals that control sleep cycle such as hypocretin
epilepsy symptoms seizures
prevalence of epilepsy 1-4%
what cause seizures in epilepsy everybody is different and cause is unique to individual
grand mal type of epilepsy that is categorized by loss of consciousness/equilibrium and with tonic-clonic convulsions
petit aml type of epilepsy that is categorized by its lack of convulsions and a disruption of consciousness associated with cessation of ongiong behavior
partial seizures vs generalized seizures partial are focal and focused to one hemisphere whereas generalized are with whole brain
how do seizures spread via thalamus, intrahemispheric commisural fibers, or diffuse interconnection between thalamus and cortex
aura first stage of seizure where person feels alteration in senses and emotional state
post-ictal phase of seizures person feels drowsiness and confusion
tonic symptoms of seizures loss of consciousness where person falls and an autonomic response causes extensions of arms and legs and clenching of fingers and jaws
clonic symptoms of seizures muscles relax completely and then muscle tone refutrns
tonic-clonic symptoms of seizures muscles alternate between rigid and relaxed
myotonic symptoms of seizures sudden onset of muscle contraction throughout body or at certain points
atonic symptoms of seizures generalized loss of muscle tone. person becomes limp and falls
simple seizures no alterations in consciousness, 1 minute or less. youll remember
complex seixures altered awareness and sensory or motor symptoms
secondary generalized seizures beings in one place and spreads
syncope loss of consciouness due to drop in BP
cells within the same column of a cortex have the same function
cells within the same row of a cortex have the same structure
what are the characteristics of sensory receptros receptive fields locate sensory events, they allow identification of change and constancy, allow distinction between self and other (exteroceptive vs interoceptive), and density determines density
characteristics of neural relays relays determines hierarchy of motor response, message modification takes place at relays, and they allow sensory interactions
characteristics of central representation in neocortex sensory information is coded. each sensory system is composed of subsystems. sensory systems have multiple representations.
where are the sensory receptors for vision located retina
where is the blind spot optic disk
where is the densest region of sensory receptors for vision fovea
where is signal transduced for vision fovea
describe the structure of the retina rods/cones connected to horizontal cells to bipolar cells to amacrine cells to ganglion cells
horizontal cells amplify signal from rods/cones to bipolar cells
bipolar cells ` link rods and cones to ganglion cells for signal transduction
amacrine cells amplify signal from bipolar cells to ganglion cells
ganglion cells fire action potential
geniculostriate pathway axons give info to lateral geniculate nucleus in thalamus LGN that goes to striate cortex via optic radiations. it is used to see patterns and colors
tectopulvinar pathway from retina to superior colliculus to pulvinar in thalamus to visual areas in temporal and parietal lobes. used to see light and spatial
which pathway is older tectopulvinar pathway
optic nerve from retina to chiasm
optic tract from chiasm to thalamus
why is the hypothalamus in the visual system SCN--regulates circadian rhythm
pretectum controls reflex of pupil and lense
superior colliculus orients movement of head and eyes and is part of tectopulvinar pathway
striate cortex is the primary visual cortex named BA17 and V1 and has retinotopic represenation
BA17 and VI striate cortex: primary visual cortex
retinotopic representation where it falls on the retina corresponds to where it falls on the occipital lobe
information flow of the visual association cortex striate occiptal cortex (BA17 primary) to extrastriate occiptal cortex (VAAT secondary) to inferior temporal or posterior parietal cortex
what are the two streams from the secondary cortex to the tertiary cortex of the visual association information flow dorsal stream leads to posterior parietal, and ventral stream leads to inferior temporal lobe
where is vision finally processed V5 (MT) -motion and V4-color
what does the ventral stream process fusiform face area face analysis, fusiform body area, parahippocampal place area (landscapes)
what does the dorsal stream process anterior intrapareietal sulcus--object directed grasping
disorders with optic tracts causes partial or complete blindness (hemianopsia--blindness in one side of visual side) or parts of visual field missing (scotoma). disorder has to due with problems with connections to occipital lobes
disorders with V1 disorders in occipital lobe or disturbances involving ventral and dorsal streams
akinetopsia inability to identify objects in motion, inability to see motion, person sees world in pictures one after another.
cerebral achromatopsia disorder of the occipital cortex. loss of ability to detect color due to V4 and V8
middle ear structures ear drum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, cochlea
middle ear function mechanial mechanisms to move fluid in tubes
inner ear structures basial membrane in cochlea, hair cells,
inner ear function transduction
n. VII nerve with the many mes in charge of hearing and vestibular sense
sound entering pathway cochlea to n. VIII to cochlear nucleus to superior olivary nuclear to medial geniculate nucleus to primary auditory cortex to secondary auditory cortex
primary auditory corrtex A1 (Heschl's gyrus) or Brodmann's 41 and 42 or transverse temporal gyri
where is primary auditory cortex located in temporal lobe
primary auditory cortex has what type of organization tonotopic
secondary auditory cortex BA22
5 types of connections of the temporal cortex hierarchial sensory, dorsal auditory, polymodal, medial temporal, frontal lobe
hierarchical sensory pathway from primary and secondary auditory cortex and visual cortical regions to lateral temporal cortex to TEMPORAL POLE (BA 38).
visual information travels through where in hierarcical sensory pathway inferior temporal gyrus
auditory information travels through where in hierarhical sensory pathway superior temporal gyrus
dorsal auditory pathway connects temporal cortex with posterior parietal cortex.
function of dorsal auditory pathway enables location of sounds in space and promotes orienting and intitiation of movements relative to sound location
polymodal pathway to STS connections start from auditory and visual hierarchichal pathways to superior temporal sulcus (STS). polymodal region is multiple sensory modalities
function of polymodal pathway involved in assigning stimuli to categories
medial temporal projection ends in amygdala and hippocampus. from perirhinal cortex to entorhinal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus . perforant pathway leads to hippocampus
funciton of medial temporal projection stimulus recognition. familiar conscious experience of knowing, assimilating, and feeling
frontal lobe projection from posterior temporal cortex to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. from anterior temporal cortex to orbitofrontal cortex
inferior temporal cortex respons to complex objects such as hands. showing that certain neurons activated depending simplicity vs complexity of object
disorder of ventral stream agnosia
agnosia failure of recognition, inability to interpret sensations and recognize things
apperceptive visual agnosia no recognition of objects, failure of perception. occipto-temporal vision impairement. failure to name or put it together
associate visual agnosia disorder of meaning. inability to name what is seen, can put it together and recognize but cant name
superior temporal sulcus STS function analyzes biological motion and is basis of social perception and devleopment of social cognition (body language). also respond to approach motions of bodies
damage to STS results in impaired recognition and recall of faces and impaired perception of subtle social signals
face processing is done by coreL V1, FFA, STS
prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces . congenital in various degrees. degree varies among people.
conductive hearing disorders problems in conduction of sound due to outer ear, eardrum, middle ear
sensorinueral hearing disorders dysfunction of inner ear (cochlea), auditory nerve or higher auditory processing centers. mostly problem with hair cells
cochlear implant need what to work functioning VIII, functioning transport from cochlea onwards
cochlear implants micorphone above head picks up sounds moves it to speech processor that amplifies sound to transmitter to receiver inside head to stimulator to create aritificial stimulation of basilar
does bilateral damage to primary cortex lead to cortical deafness no. it leads to central deafness
auditory hallucinations are due to spontaneous neural activity in audiroty cortex interacting with langauge areas of temporal lobe
left temporal damage causes what problems in speech perception problems discriminating sounds (people seem to talk fast),
right temporal damage causes what problems in speech perception people have difficulty understanding emotional intention of language
music is perceived how in brain left hemisphere has to do with rhythm and right with pitch
amusia tone deaf
posterior temporal lobe damage causes what problems in speech perception impaired ability to categorize words and pictures and semantic categories and hierarchies. problems with context clues and impariment in long term memory
temporal lobe damage can affect what in personality and affect typically more aggressive and hostile, self-centered, pedantic, preoccuption with religion
nociception perception of unpleasant stimuli, pain and temperature
hapsis perception of objects using fine touch and pressure receptors
proprioception perception of position of limbs and their movement
balance is mediated by vestibular system in inner ear.
spinothalamic tract pain and temperature information and crosses at level entry into spinal cord
dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway touch and proprioceptive information, crosses in medulla
vestibular organ consists of two otolith organs (saccule and utricle) and 3 semicircular canals
otoliths/otoconia calcium carbonate particles next to hair cells push against hair cells and cause excitation when head tilts
semicircular canals filled with jelly like substance and hair cells that are activated when head moves
for vestibular sense info travels through n. VIII to nuclei in pons and medulla to spinal cord , thalamus, and cerebellum
anterior zone of parietal lobe postcentral gyrus (brodman 123) and parietal operculum (brodmann 43)
superior parietal lobule brodmann 5 and 7
inferior parietal lobr supramarginal gyrus (brodmann 40), angular gyrus (brodmann 39)
area 5 pathway primary sensory areas (123) to primary motor cortex (4), supplemental motor area (SMA), and premotor areas (68)
area 5 function guiding movement by giving information about limbs, position, and movment
area 7a pathway from primary sensory areas, secondary sensory (%), motor and premotor cortex and visual areas to output to primary motor cortex (4), SMA, and premotor areas,
function of area 7a more elaborate movement guidance by giving info about limbs
area 7b, 39, 40 from sense areas to many places but important connection with prefrontal cortex
function of area 7b, 39, 40 intermodal integration, spatially guided actions based on visual and tactile info
anterior parietal lobe function somatosensation
posterior parietal function egocentric space, spatial skills, integration of sense for movement
Created by: LittleD331