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western civilization

Chapters 5-7

Consul the chief executive officers of the roman republic. two were chosen annually to administer gov't and lead the army in battle.
Praetor a roman executive official responsible for the administration of the law.
Senate the leading council of the roman republic; composed of about 300 men who served for life and dominated much of the political life of the republic
Council of the Plebs a council only for plebians
Tribune of the Plebs in 494 B.C.E roman officials who were given the power to protect plebeians against arrest by patrician magistrates
Plebeians the class of roman citizens that included nonpatrician landowners, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers in the roman republic. their struggle for equal rights with the patricians dominated much of the republics history
Patricians Great landowners who became the ruling class in the roman republic
Latinfundia large landed estates in the roman empire
Paterfamilias the dominant male in a roman family whose powers over his wife and children were theoretically unlimited, though they were sometimes circumvented in practice
Dictator in the roman republic an official granted unlimited power o run the state for a short period of time usually six months during an emergency
Principate the form of gov't established by Augustus for the roman empire.
Pax Romana Roman peace. stability that roman rule brought to the Mediterranean world and much of western Europe
Praetorian guard the military unit that served as the personal bodyguard of the roman emperors
Five Pillars of Islam the tenets Muslim faith: belief in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet; standard prayer five times a day and public prayer on Friday; observance of the holy month of Ramadan by fasting from dawn to sunset; making a pilgrimage to mecca; giving alms to poor.
Caliph a secular leader of the Islamic community
Koran Sacred book in Islam. recorded the beliefs of the Muslims and served as their code of ethics and law.
Wergeld money for a man. a persons value in monetary terms, paid by the wrongdoer to the family of the person who had been injured or killed
Monk a man who chooses to live a communal life divorced from the world In order to dedicate himself totally to the will of god
Liberal Arts the seven areas of study that formed the basis of education in medieval and early modern Europe.
Petrine Supremacy the doctrine that the bishop of Rome as the successor of saint peter should hold a preeminent position in the church
Monasticism a movement that began in early Christianity whose purpose was to create communities of men and women who practiced a communal life dedicated to god as a moral example to the world around them
Heresy the holding of religious doctrines different from the official teachings of the church
Pope Gregory the Great One of the most important popes of the early middle ages, the last of the Latin father of the church
Muhammad Prophet
Created by: mellymels