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Chapter 11

Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
mouth opening through which food passes into the body
tongue skeletal muscle, attached to the posterior region of the mouth
palate separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
soft palate posterior portion, not supported by bone
hard palate anterior portion, supported by bone
uvula soft V-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate directs food in throat
pharynx, throat performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth in the esophagus
esophagus 10-inch tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to stomach
stomach J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food
cardia area around the opening of the esophagus
fundus proximal domed portion of the stomach
body central portion of the stomach, distal to the fundus
antrum distal portion of the stomach
pylorus portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
small intestine 20-foot tube extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
duodenum first! 10 to 12 inches of the small intestine
jejunum second! portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet
ileum third! portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long
large intestine approximately 5 feet long tube that extends from the ileum to the anus
cecum blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon next portion of the large intestine. Four parts
rectum distal portion of the large intestine, approximately 8 to 10 long
anus sphincter muscle at the end of the digestive tract
salivary glands produce saliva, which flows into the mouith
liver produce bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats
bile ducts passageway that carry bile, coveys bile to the duodenum
gallbladder small, saclike structure that stores bile produced by the liver
pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food secretes insulin
peritoneum serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
appendix small pouch, which has no known function in digestion, attached to the cecum
abdomen portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
villi tiny fingerlike projections that line the walls of the small intestine
an/o anus
antr/o antrum
cec/o cecum
col/o, colon/o colon (large intestine)
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestine (small intestine)
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
or/o, stomat/o mouth
proct/o, rect/o rectum
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o abdomen, abdominal cavity
append/o, appendic/o appendix
cheil/o lip
cholangi/o bile duct
chol/e gall, bile
choledoch/o common bile duct
diverticul/o diverticulum, or blind pouch
gingiv/o gum
gloss/o, lingu/o tongue
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia, or protrusion of an organ
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
polyp/o polyp, small growth
pylor/o pylorus, pyloric sphincter
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
steat/o fat
uvul/o uvula
hemi- half
-pepsia digestion
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
proctoptosis prolapse of the rectum
adhesion growing together of two peritoneal surfaces that normally are separated
celiac disease malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune reaction to gluten
cirrhosis chronic disease of the liver with the destruction of cells and form scar tissue
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus
ileus non-mechanical obstruction of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea or constipation
polyp tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane, usually benign
colostomy creation of an artificial opening into the colon
gastrectomy excision of the stomach
hemicolectomy excision of half of the colon
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx
colonoscopy visual examination of the colon
laparoscope instrument used for the visual examination of the abdominal cavity
proctoscopy visual examination of the sigmoid
upper GI (gastrointestinal) series radiographic images taken after the contrast agent barium has been taken
Helicobacter pylori blood test to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria
anal pertaining to the anus
dysphagia difficult swallowing
oral pertaining to the mouth
stomatogastric pertaining to the mouth and stomach
sublingual pertaining to under the tongue
ascites abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
emesis expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth
nausea urge to vomit
reflux abnormal backward flow
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
H. pylori Helicobacter pylori
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
Created by: 1369322229760607
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