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CNS appendix A

CNS appendix A terms

Chordata Phylum in which man is classified
Vertebrata Subphylum in which man is classified
Mammalia Class in which man is classified
Primate Order in which man is classified
Homo Sapiens Proper way to write the genus and species of man
Adenohypophysis The anterior and intermediate portions of the pituitary gland
Neurohypophysis The posterior pituitary or "pars nervosa"
Hypophysis Cerebri Pineal gland (entire structure)
Epiphysis Cerebri Pineal gland (body)
Embryo The name given the developing human prior to the end of the second month of gestation
Foetus (fetus) name applied to the developing human after the second month of gestation
Neonate The newborn infant
Dentate Notched or toothlike
Arcuate Arranged like an arch
Striae (striatal) A groove or streak-like formation
Rectus Meaning "straight"
Reticular Net-like
Fissure a relatively deep groove (infolding)
Sulcus a relatively shallow groove (infolding)
Gyrus Tortuous convolution. Usually found between sulci and/or fissures of the cerebrum
Folia Small page-like gyri of the cerebellum
Nuclei As used in neurology, a cluster or group of neuron cell bodies located within the CNS
Ganglia A cluster or group of neuron cell bodies within the PNS (a few exceptions exist in the PNS)
Neuron a nerve cell
Perikaryon Used synonymously with the cell body (soma) of the neuron
Axon a process of a neuron which carries a charge or impulse toward the cell body
Fiber A dominately long process (dendrite or axon) of a neuron which can be called a "fiber". Also designated as a "nerve fiber" or a "neuron fiber".
Nerve Whitish colored PNS structures filled with neuron fibers which innervate the body's parts.
Ramus Literally meaning a "branch". The major branches off of the spinal nerve trunks are called the white ramus, gray ramus, dorsal ramus, ventral ramus, etc.
Axolemma name applied to the outer plasma membrane (plasmalemma) of an axon.
Neurilemma A covering around a neuron fiber created by a surrounding cell (it may not be myelinated).
Vertebral Canal (Neural Canal) Passageway created by the continuous nature of the vertebral foramina.
Central Canal A tiny channel found within the spinal cord and inferior medulla oblongata.
Aqueduct Passageway, e.g. - Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius
Leptomeninx Thin membrane. Collective term for the arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Pachymeninx Thick membrane. Used synonymously with the dura mater.
Somesthetic To sense the body
Modality A specific sensory entity, such as gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell), pain, etc.
Proprioception The modality of subconscious awareness of body position and muscle movement.
Kinesthesia The modality of conscious awareness of body position and muscle movement.
Adrenergic The releasing of adrenalin-like (norepinephrine included) molecules at a target site.
Cholinergic The releasing of choline-like (acetylcholine) molecules at a target site.
Chiasma A crossing - usually relating to the crossing of optic fibers (e.g. - optic chiasma)
Decussation A crossing - used more liberally to indicate crossing of fibers and tracts in the CNSossing -
Contralateral To the opposite side
Ipsilateral On the same side
Anterograde Going forward. Refers to going away from the neuron cell body.
Retrograde Going backward. Refers to going back toward the cell body.
Fugal Traveling away from. Ex.- pallidalfugal (away from the pallidal nuclei)
Lesion Any type of injury, damage, or "hurt"
Myelopathy Lesion of the spinal cord (rarely used for entire CNS)
Necrosis Death of cells or tissue
Neoplasm (tumor) Any new abnormal growth
Malignant Spreading life threatening neoplasm
Metastatic Transferring to other tissue
Idiopathic Generally used to mean something of an unknown cause
Ischemia To suppress blood supply to an area. Results in abnormal function and may lead to necrosis.
Hematoma An accumulation of blood outside of the blood vessels (e.g. - subdural hematoma)
Aneurysm An abnormal dilation of a blood vessel wall and its lumen (forms a blood containing sac)
Stroke Blood vascular loss in the CNS leading to permanent or prolonged brain damage (cerbrovascular accident)
Angiography X-ray of blood vessels injected with radiopaque dyes.
Myelography X-ray of vertebral canal and spinal cord structures folowing injection of radiopaque dyes into the CSF.
Ataxia General term for irregularity in skeletal muscle coordination.
Paralysis Total or partial loss of normal motor function.
Aphasia Inability to communicate by speech, writing, or signs.
Dysphasia A partial or unusual loss of communicative ability.
Archi- Prefix meaning "beginning" or "original"
Paleo- Prefix meaning "old". Similar to but not used interchangeably with Archi- in the CNS.
Neo- Prefix meaning "new". Usually in contrast to archi- or paleo-.
Cauda Equina Horse's Tail
Cephalgia Headache (also spelled cephalalgia)
Cornu Horn-like projection (cornua is plural)
Crus Leg or Leg-like
Cytoarchitecture The pattern of cell arrangements
Falx Sickle-shaped (falces is plural)
Fenestrae Window-like
Foramen Opening (such as Foramen Magnum)
Glial Literally - "glue like". Several CNS cell types are included as glial cells.
Micron A metric system unit of length meaning "small" (synonymous with micrometer).
Operculum "Lid" or "covering"
Pallium To "cloak". Used synonymously with "cortex". (e.g.- Cerebral cortex is the same as cerebral pallium)
Pons Bridge. Located between the M.O. and the midbrain.
BBB Blood Brain Barrier
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
CVA Cerebrovascular Accident
TIA Transient Ischemic Attack (often precedes the CVA)
DRG Dorsal Root Ganglia
IVF Intervertebral Foramen (opening through which the spinal nerve emerges from the vertebral canal).
EEG Electroencephalogram (graph). Record and instrument used to pick up brain waves.
CAT Computerized Axial Topography
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (utilizes large magnets which rearrange hydrogen molecules)
PET Positron Emission Tomography (device using radioactively labeled compunds for functional analysis)
M.O. Medulla Oblongata
M.S. Multiple Sclerosis
ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrigh's Disease)
GABA Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (an amino acid which is a common inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter)
ACH Acetylcholine (first neurotransmitter identified - widespread in CNS and PNS)
Created by: xiros28