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WVSOM immuno 5&6

WVSOM Antibody lectures 5&6 immuno

What is a selectin? cell adhesion molecule that helps with cell to cell interaction
What are integrins? cell adhesion molecules that help with cell to cell interaction, it has two subunits alpha and beta
How can we determine if a vaccine has worked? measure the amount of antibody against the vaccine
So what are immunoglobulins? they are part of normal plasma proteins produced by B cells, if you take the blood serum or plasma and put in an electrical field the proteins will separate according to their size and charge, most of antibodies will be down near the negative end
What is an immunogen? any substance capable of inducing an immune response
What is an antigen? any substance that can serve as the target of an immune response
When you immunize someone you give what? an immunogen
Can immunogen and antigen be the same? sometimes
What are the determinants of immunogenicity? in general it has to have large size, chemical complexity, solubility and biodegradability, and if its foreign
What is a Hapten? a substance, usually very small, that alone is not immunogenic, but after binding to a carrier protein or cell, becomes immunogenic.
After the hapten is bound what does the antibody bind to? to the hapten alone, the carrier, or both
What are a couple examples of hapten? substance in poison ivy combining with proteins on your skin, penicillin combining with your own proteins to give an adverse drug reaction
What does an antibody recognize and what are the terms were using? antigen
What is an epitope? the actual molecular substances that your immune system will recognize and react against, they are on the antigen
Can antigens have multiple epitopes, if so does it have a name? yes they can have different epitopes or multiple copies of the same epitope, this would be called a multivalent antigen
What types of epitopes what are they? a linear or discontinuous sequence of proteins that antibodies recognize and react against, the linear is in a line, discontinuous is more 3d
Which would the antibody still recognize if it has been denatured, linear or discontinuous epitope? linear, discontinuous is more of a 3d structure making it harder for the antibody to bind if denatured
You have a Hypothetical virus has a lot of different glycoprotiens each could be an antigen, how many epitopes does the antigens have to respond to? each antigen can have several epitopes in which the immune system may respond to.
Are all epitopes recognized by the immune system to purge the antigen? Some epitopes may protect the body in helping the body to eliminate the organism, some may not mean anything at all
What are the biological roles for antibody? neutralization, opsonization, complement activation
What is neutralization? antibody can bind to the surface of an organism to prevent it from binding to your cells to prevent infection, can bind to toxin produced by a bacterium to neutralize that
What is opsonization? antibody can coat the surface allowing for phagocytosis
What is complement activation? classical pathway, B cell produces antibody, antibody binds to the surface of antigen, C1 protein comes in complement is activated on that surface
What does the humoral immune response lead to? antibody production response
What does the cellular immune response lead to? production of T-cells and macrophages things other than antibody
Does the humoral and cellular immune response talk to one another? yes they interact
Are the antibodies produced in the primary response the same as the antibodies produced in the secondary response? no they are a little different
Which is the larger response to an immunogen, primary or secondary? secondary is larger and faster
What is the formula for the basic protein chain structure of immunoglobulin? 2H + 2L = Ig, 2 identical protein heavy chains, 2 identical protein light chains
Are the chains of antibody arranged in a linear sequence? no they are folded back and forth to form globular domains
What make up the different regions of an immunoglobulin? antigen binding sites, variable region, light chain (212 residues), hinge region, and heavy chain (450 residues)
The light chains have what two regions? variable region and constant region
In the heavy chains what regions do they have? one variable region and at least 3 constant regions
What are the proteins in the antibody held together with? disulfide bonds
What is the hinge region? gives molecule some flexibility so the arms can move relative to each other
What is the antigen binding site and what is it made of? have two identical antigen binding site formed from the variable regions of the light and heavy chain coming together this forms a 3d structure that binds to the antigen
They have identified a portion of the antibody called the Fab what is it composed of? variable regions and constant regions number one and the constant of the light chain, its they Y of one arm its what binds to the antigen
Where does the binding site come from how is it formed? formed from variable region of a light chain and a variable region of a heavy chain
Fc region of the antibody is what, what is its importance? you antibody can be acting as a bridge between the organism and some cell of the immune system that comes in to kill it, opsonization, the cell will have a receptor that recognizes the Fc portion of the anitbody binds through a Fc receptor
In general how many different types of light chains are there? 2 lambda or kappa
What are the five major antibody classes? IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
What are the different classes of IgG? IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4
Which antibody class will be predominant in the blood? IgG
IgG1 and IgG3 tend to be better at activating what than the others? complement
What the two classes of IgA? IgA1, IgA2
Where would you find most of the IgA antibody? mucosal membranes and body secretions (breast milk, tears, saliva)
Over all which antibody does the body make most of? IgA but it cant be sampled as readily as IgG
What does IgM form when secreted? monomer, and pentamer 5 of the immunoglobulin molecules hooked together by a J chain
What does IgA form when secreted? monomer, dimeric have two of them hooked together by a J chain
Most of the IgA that you find on the mucous membranes and secretions will be in what form? dimer form
What is the secretory component and where is it found? found on the IgA antibody, helps it survive on the membranes and is a transport mechanism that gets it from place to place
What joins the immunoglobulins together in a pentameric IgM? J chain
Which is generally the largest of the immuoglobulins? IgM most of it will be introvascular it doesn’t get out of the blood stream very much
Which immunoglobulin will be able to get out of the blood stream into the tissues? IgG
What is an Isotype? variants present in all members of the species, eg. IgG1, IgG2, etc
What is an Allotype? variants that differ between members of the species
What is an idiotype? variants due to the hypervariable regions of antibody and TCell Receptor, the body is able to make millions of these each different
What determines the different types of antibody molecules? heavy chain
The blood sample you take from your patient should contain from most to least immunoglobulin? IgG> IgA> IgM> small amounts of IgD> IgE generally the least
Where are IgD predominately found? receptor on surface of B cells
Which immunoglobulin will be increased if you have an allergic disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, or parasites? IgE
Which immunoglobulin tends to stay around longer and why? IgG, because the others tend to get eat up
What is Complement fixation? the ability to activate compliment by classical pathway
In order to activate the complement by the classical pathway what needs to be in close approximation? a lot of the Fc regions so you need several IgGs to activate compliment
Which immunoglobuline is the best at activating complement by the classical pathway? IgM because of the pentimeric shape, IgG 1 and 3 are good as well but still take several IgGs to activate complement
Which immunoglobulin is able to cross the placenta? Only IgG is able to bind to a certain receptor in utero and cross the placenta into the developing fetus circulation
Where are the actual binding sites of immunoglobulin and what are they made from? 3 hyper variable regions that stick out from the binding site of where the light and heavy variable regions come together
Where do the hypervariable regions lie in the light chains? discrete loops of the structure, available for contact with antigen
In general what type of bonding takes place in antibodies? not covalent, usually hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attractions, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions
What does antigen recognition induce in t cells? induces expression of effector molecules by the T cell, which activates B cell
Different antibody classes are determined by what? heavy chains
Which of the antibodies are transported across the mucosa via a secretory component? IgA
A 5 day old baby born to a mom with gravis disease affect muscle control shows signs of muscle weakness, which immunoglobulin is most likely causing the muscle weakness? IgG because this is the only one that crosses the placenta
What does antigen recognition induce in t cells? induces expression of effector molecules by the T cell, which activates B cell
What is Auto reactive antibody? as with any aspect of the immune response you can have an inappropriate activation of antibody production, you can have antibody that act against yourself, example lupus
What is immunofluorescence? a technique used to detect certain antibodies in tissue
What is direct immunofluorescence? fluoresceinated antibody allowed to bind directly to antigen in tissue section, it fluoresces when UV is added and reveals a pattern of expression of the antigen
What is indirect immunofluorescence? you have an antigen in the tissue sample, put an antibody to bind to that antigen, then put a second antibody that has a fluoresceinated tag to bind to the first antibody
Can an antibody be an antigen if so how do you detect it? yes you can detect with another antibody
What is the purpose of vaccinations? to expose people with a lesser or nonactive strain so if they come in contact with the strain they can initiate a secondary immune response
What is the classical method of monoclonal antibody production? put antigen in animal, harvest spleen of animal, harvest through PEG, cell fusion, test for antibody positive wells, clone antibody producers
What are monoclonal antibodies? antibodies we use nowadays that are clones of an antibody that was isolated for a specific antigen
What type of antibody is Rituxan and its target? Chimeric; CD20
What type of antibody is Herceptin and its target? Humanized; HER2 receptors
What type of antibody is Remicade and its target? chimeric; TNF
What type of antibody is Synagis and its target? Humanized; RSV protein
What type of antibody is Xolair and its target? Humanized; IgE
What type of antibody is Campath and its target? Humanized; CD52 on leukemia cells
What type of antibody is Tysabriand its target? Humanized; Alpha integrin
Why is it important to have a humanized antibody? so the body will not reject or attack the antibody
How do you humanize an antibody? add human proteins to the antibody before cloning so it will have human characteristics but retains its antigen binding specificity
What is a ELISA? a popular laboratory method for detecting specific serum antibody, used to detect and semi-quantitate antigen or antibody
What does serology do? measuring antibody amount and type present
What does ELISA stand for? Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
What type of reagent are you going to use to measure a patients antigen in the serum? antibody
What is a western blot and what is it used for? combination of electrophoresis, protein transfer and antigen-antibody binding is used to detect immune response to pathogens
What is the confirmatory test for HIV antibodies? a western blot
What is the most common immune deficiency for the antibodies? IgA
What is immunofixation electrophoresis? buffered agarose gel electrophoresis followed by overlay with specific antibody
What is Zone electrophoresis do? find patterns of serum immunoglobulin abnormalities in various diseases
If you have IgG myeloma what would you see in a zone electrophoresis? reduced albumen and a spike at position gamma
If you have a patient with Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia where is the spike in zone electrophoresis? IgM
If you have poly clonal hypergammaglobulinemia what do you see in a zone electrophoresis? a smear with elevated antibodies
Created by: hagerman