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WORLD HISTORY

Chapter 22 French Revolution and Napoleon

QuestionAnswer
What were the three estates in French society? The First Estate was clergy, the Second was nobles, and the Third was peasants, townspeople, and the bourgeoisie.
What was the immediate cause of the French Revolution? The French Revolution’s immediate cause was the near collapse of the French budget and the resulting food shortages and unemployment.
Who formed the National Assembly and why? The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly when Louis XVI refused to change the voting structure in the Estates-General.
What happened on July 14, 1789? Parisian rebels attacked the Bastille, a prison and an armory. After intense fighting, the warden surrendered.
What was the Great Fear? The Great Fear was a time of vast panic. Peasants rebelled against the monarchy and feared an invasion of foreign troops.
What document, passed by the National Assembly, guaranteed men basic liberties? The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen guaranteed basic liberties.
Why did the revolutionaries want to reform the Catholic Church? They wanted to change the old order, bring the Church under control of the state, and get money by selling off Church lands.
How did the actions of the Paris Commune move the French Revolution to a more radical stage? Members organized protests, captured the king, made the Legislative Assembly suspend the monarchy, and called for a National Convention.
Who were the sans-culottes? They were Paris Commune members who wore long pants to identify themselves as ordinary people, not nobles
What problems led to the outbreak of a revolution in France? the budget crisis, food shortages, and unemployment; the social inequality of the three estates and growing peasant resentment of the lavish lifestyles of the nobility; Louis XVI’s reluctance to reform the Estates-General.
The convention of 1792 abolished the _______________ and established a _______________. monarchy, republic
Many members of the Mountain belonged to the _______________ club and believed the king should be _______________. Jacobin, executed
The National Convention, fearing domestic uprisings and external threats, gave broad powers to the Committee of Public _______________. Safety
The Committee, dominated by Maximilien _______________, controlled the government and adopted strict policies. Robespierre
During the Reign of Terror, almost _______________ people from all classes were killed. 40,000
Robespierre called his new order of good citizens the Republic of _______________. Virtue
The National Convention pursued a policy of _______________, which included closing churches, encouraging priests to marry, and the adoption of a new _______________. de-Christianization, calendar
Fearing the revolution was in danger, the Committee of Public Safety issued a decree to raise a French _______________. army
The large army pushed invaders back across the _______________ and conquered the _______________ Netherlands. Rhine, Austrian
Members of the National Convention feared becoming the next victims of _______________ and voted to condemn him. Robespierre
The _______________ of 1795 set up a government with two legislative houses whose members were chosen by _______________. Constitution, electors
The government of the Directory, became known mainly for _______________ and began to rely on the to _______________ stay in power. corruption, military
In a 1799 _______________, _______________ toppled the Directory and seized power in France. coup d’état, Napoleon
What were the major events of the French Revolution, and how did each affect the Revolution’s outcome? PART 1 the abolition of the monarchy and king’s execution created a backlash throughout Europe, which then led to power being given to the Committee for Public Safety;
What were the major events of the French Revolution, and how did each affect the Revolution’s outcome? PART 2 the following brutal Reign of Terror led to increased public fear and a growing army, and, eventually, fear led to Robespierre’s death, then moderates drafted a constitution that created the Directory.
Napoleon’s failed invasion of _______________ led other _______________ states to attack the weakened French army. Russia, European
Napoleon was exiled to _______________, and _______________ became king. Elba, Louis XVIII
After Napoleon returned to Paris, Russia, Great Britain, _______________, and _______________ pledged to defeat him. Austria, Prussia (either order)
Napoleon’s final defeat came at _______________ in Belgium against a combined _______________ and British army. Waterloo, Prussian
At the Congress of _______________ in 1814, European powers rearranged territories to form a new balance of _______________ so that no one country could dominate. Vienna, power
Prince von _______________ wanted lawful monarchs who had ruled before Napoleon to be restored to power. Metternich
_______________ is a political philosophy based on obedience to political _______________ and a belief in organized religion. Conservatism, authority
The great powers eventually adopted a principle of _______________; troops were sent in to crush revolutions in Spain and Italy. intervention
Growing out of the _______________, the political philosophy of _______________ emphasized the protection of civil liberties. Enlightenment, liberalism
After the French Revolution, people began to feel that their chief loyalty was to their _______________, not their king or town. nation
_______________ and liberals agreed that each group of people should have its own state and its own government. Nationalists
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 1 Napoleon’s defeat in Russia and the alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia;
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 2 Europe’s response, including the Congress of Vienna, the philosophy of conservatism, the formation of a new balance of power, the principle of intervention, and the rise of liberalism and nationalism.
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 1 Napoleon’s defeat in Russia and the alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia;
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 2 Europe’s response, including the Congress of Vienna, the philosophy of conservatism, the formation of a new balance of power, the principle of intervention, and the rise of liberalism and nationalism.
What was the result of the military campaigns Napoleon led in Italy? His victories gave France control of northern Italy. As a result, he returned to France as a hero.
Who appointed Napoleon emperor? Napoleon appointed himself Emperor Napoleon I.
Why did Napoleon make peace with the Catholic Church? He felt it was smart to make peace with the Church since most French people were Catholic. Also, by doing so, he gained supporters.
How did Napoleon codify French laws? He did away with the 300 different systems and created a set of seven law codes, including the Civil Code, which preserved some of the key revolutionary principles.
How did Napoleon change the bureaucracy? He developed a powerful bureaucracy in which officials were chosen and promoted based on ability instead of rank or birth.
What were the parts of the Grand Empire? The three parts of his Grand Empire were the French Empire, dependent states, and allied states.
How were dependent states different from allied states, and what is an example of each? Dependent states like Spain were ruled by Napoleon’s relatives. Allied states like Prussia were defeated by Napoleon.
What are two major reasons that help explain the collapse of Napoleon’s empire? Britain’s ability to resist Napoleon and the rise of nationalism in the peoples he conquered were two important causes of the empire’s collapse.
How did Napoleon rise to power, and what were the effects of his rule? Part 1 his military successes, his appointment as consul, and his reign as emperor; the codification of French laws; peace with the Church; bureaucracy based on merit;
How did Napoleon rise to power, and what were the effects of his rule? Part 2 the Grand Empire; rise of nationalism; preservation of some reforms of the French Revolution; development of a liberal tradition in countries within his empire.
Napoleon’s failed invasion of _______________ led other _______________ states to attack the weakened French army. Russia, European
Napoleon was exiled to _______________, and _______________ became king. Elba, Louis XVIII
After Napoleon returned to Paris, Russia, Great Britain, _______________, and _______________ pledged to defeat him. Austria, Prussia (either order)
Napoleon’s final defeat came at _______________ in Belgium against a combined _______________ and British army. Waterloo, Prussian
At the Congress of _______________ in 1814, European powers rearranged territories to form a new balance of _______________ so that no one country could dominate. Vienna, power
Prince von _______________ wanted lawful monarchs who had ruled before Napoleon to be restored to power. Metternich
_______________ is a political philosophy based on obedience to political _______________ and a belief in organized religion. Conservatism, authority
The great powers eventually adopted a principle of _______________; troops were sent in to crush revolutions in Spain and Italy. intervention
Growing out of the _______________, the political philosophy of _______________ emphasized the protection of civil liberties. Enlightenment, liberalism
After the French Revolution, people began to feel that their chief loyalty was to their _______________, not their king or town. nation
_______________ and liberals agreed that each group of people should have its own state and its own government. Nationalists
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 1 Napoleon’s defeat in Russia and the alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia; Europe’s response, including the Congress of Vienna,
Why did Napoleon fall from power, and how did Europe respond to his defeat? PART 2 the philosophy of conservatism, the formation of a new balance of power, the principle of intervention, and the rise of liberalism and nationalism.
Created by: PLHSWorld1