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Political Geography

AP Human Geography - Unit 4 Political Geography

Political Geeography the study of the political organization of the world
Sovereignty a recognized right to control a territory both politically and militarily
Multinational State a state with more than one nation inside its borders
Multistate Nation when a nation stretches across borders and across states
Stateless Nations nations that do not have a state Ex: the Kurds
World Systems Theory 3. the world has a three tier structure: Core Periphery Semiperiphery
Core where one is most likely to find higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology
Periphery processes associated with a more marginal position in the world economy
Semiperiphery places where core and periphery processes are both occurring
Centripetal Forces forces within the state that unify the people
Centrifugal Forces forces that divide the people Ex: Language
Unitary Governments centralized states whose administrative framework is designed to ensure the central government's authority over all the state
Strong Federal System regions have much control over government policies and funs
Weak Federal System the central government retains a significant measure of power
Devolution the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the states
Reapportionment process by which districts are moved according to population shifts so that each district has about the same number of people
Boundary a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below (called the subsoil) and the airspace above, dividing one state from another
Geometric Boundaries drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range
Physical-Political Boundaries follow an agreed upon figure in the natural landscape Ex: The center point of a river or crest of a mountain range
Definitional Boundary Dispute focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement
Locational Boundary Dispute center on the delimitation and possibly the demarcation of the boundary. the definition is not in dispute, but its interpretation is
Operational Boundary Dispute involve neighbors who differ over the way their border should function
Allocational Boundary Dispute are becoming more common as the search for resources intensifies
Classical Geopolitics late 19th century/early 20th century geopoliticians were usually either part of the German school or the British/American school
German School tried to explain why certain states were powerful and how they became powerful Friedrick Ratzel
British/American School land-based power, not sea-power, would ultimately rule the world Sir Halford J. Mackinder "The Geographical Pivot of History"
Geopolitcs term with negative connotations
Supranational Organization three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared Ex: United Nations, European Union
Deterritorialization glabalization, networked communities, etc. undermine the state's traditional territorial authority
Reterritorialization the state is moving to solidify control over its territory
Created by: Anjella