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WH2 Unit 4 Vocab

Scientific Revolution, Absolute Monarchs and Enlightenment

TermDefinition
Centralization Policy of government to maintain central control
Divine Right Belief that a ruler's authority is given by God
Versailles Palace built by Louis XIV and added to by later monarchs
Westernization Modernization policies undertaken by Peter the Great in Russia
Democracy Government in which the citizens hold the final power
Common Law Body of laws that developed, case by case, from the rulings of England's royal judges
Glorious Revolution Peaceful removal of England's James II from the throne and the recognition of William & Mary as the new monarchs who signed the English Bill of Rights
Magna Carta Document guaranteeing basic rights of Englishmen signed in 1215
Political Party A group orgnaized for the purpose of directing the policies of government
Consitution The established laws of the United States
Enlightenment Period of the mid-18th century that was characterized by the use of reason & scientific methods
Revolution A sudden change, as in the overthrow of a ruler of government
Separation of Powers Division of government powers among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial - so that no single branch can become a threat to liberty
Social Contract Rousseau's belief that only legitimate government rules by consent of the people. The people can break the "contract" if their interests are not served
Sovereign Independent authority and supreme power
Heliocentric Theory Sun-centered model of the universe
Geocentric Earth-centered model of the universe
Scientific Method Logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas by forming a hypothesis and then testing it
Absolute Monarch Kings or Queens who held all the power within their states' boundaries
Peter the Great Important leader of Russia who started Westernization
Thirty Years' War A conflict over religion, territory and power among European ruling families
Constitutional Monarchy A government in which laws limit the ruler's power
Louis XIV Absolute monarch of France that built Versailles as the symbol of his power
Thomas Hobbes Author of Leviathan, and who believed that the best form of government was an absolute monarchy
Charles I King of England that attempted to be an absolute monarch, but lost a civil war and his head!
Oliver Cromwell Puritan leader that defeated the English king and established himself as Lord Protector
Galileo Scientist who proved the heliocentric theory was correct by using a telescope
Copernicus Proposed the heliocentric theory, and was later excommunicated by the Catholic Church
Johan Kepler Used mathematics to prove the heliocentric theory, as well as that the planets orbit the sun in an ellipse
William Harvey Proved that the heart circulates the blood
Created by: moniker124