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APHuG Unit 6 Vocab

AP Human Geography

Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1000 women aged 15-19
Agricultural labor force A measure of the participating portion of an economy's labor force
Calorie consumption The total number of calories in a daily diet allocation
Core-periphery model A mode of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating core region
Cultural convergence The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly use technology and organization structure in the modern world united by improved transportation and communication
Dependency theory Theory that most of the LDCs are highly dependent on foreign-owned factories, foreign direct investment, and technology from MDCs to provide employment opportunities and infrastructure
Development A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Energy consupmtion The use of energy as a source of heat or power or as a raw material input to manufacturing process
Fair trade An alternative to international trade, emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives, requires employers to pay worker fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards
Foreign direct investment Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Four Tigers Asian countries of South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong; promoted development through international trade
Fracking The pumping of water and high pressure to break apart rockes in order to release natural gas
Gender Male/female
Gross domestic product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year)
Gross national product (GNP) The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves an enters the country
Housing Bubble A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value
Human Development Index (HDI) An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, that is based of income, literacy , education, and life expectancy
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) An indicator of development that modifies the HDI to account for inequality within a country
Literacy rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Maternal mortality ratio The percentage of women who die giving birth per 10,000 births
Microfinance Provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals Eight international development goals that all members of the UN have agreed to achieve by 2015
Neocolonialism A disparaging reference to economic and political policies by which major developed counties are seen to retain or extend influence over the economies of LDCs and people
Physical Quality of Life Index An attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country
Productivity The value of a particular product compared tot hte amount of labor needed to make it
Purchasing power parity (PPP) The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country; PPP adjust income figures to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
Sustainable development Development that does not rely on a resource that is being used faster than it can be produced
Technology gap The contrast between the tech available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment
Technology transfer The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or retention of the tech possessed by another, usually more developed society
Third World Countries that have mainly agricultural and resource-based economies, found in, but not limited to, Latin America, African, Caribbean countries
World Systems Theory Wallerstein's theory that is also known as the core-periphery model
Created by: alicemb00