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Ap Geo Review unit 4

Pink sheet terms, important vocabulary and concepts.

nation state Politically organized space where a nation and a state occupy the same space. Japan is in example but their are few states like it. So is Iceland.
Structure of contemporary political map. Independent states are the building blocks of the of world political map. The types include, nations, states, nation-states, multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions.
Evolution of contemporary political map. Began in Europe, Colonialism and imperialism=spread of nationalism and influence of contemporary political boundaries.
Geopolitical influences on the contemporary political map. After World War 2, Independence movements and democratization shaped political map. Fall of Communism led to creation of newly independent states, and changing the world balance of power.
Concepts of political power. Power expressed geographically as control over people, land, and resources.
Territoriality The connection of people, their culture and their economic systems to the land.
Nature and function of international and internal boundaries. Boundaries are defined, delimited demarcated, and administered.
International boundaries Establish the limits of sovereignty and can be the source of disputes. Influence identity and promote/prevent intentional or internal interaction and exchanges.
Law of the Seas Enable countries to extend boundaries, which sometime results in conflicts. Permits states to delimit territory up to 12 miles. Sovereignty extends in all forms in this zone.
Exclusive economic zone Economic rights up to 200 nautical miles; a right to control exploration of natural resources, in water, seabed and subsoil.
exclave non-island piece of territory that is part of a state but lies separated from it by territory or another state.
enclave piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit which it is not a part of. *(Landlocked within the country which surrounded them.)
Forms of governance unitary states and federal states. United States and Switzerland are Federal and France is unitary.
Unitary state Central government has direct control of everything in the state.
Federal State Central Government has authority but states or sub national states also have authority in the territory.
Supernationalism The coming together of three or more countries for a common goal.
State morphology types Compact- Poland Elongated - Vietnam and Chile Perforated- South Africa Fragmented- Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Sicily, Sardinia Prorupted- Thailand
Nation state examples Japan and Greenland
Supernationalism examples UN, NATO, EU, ASEAN, NAFTA. More than three states forge an association and form an administration for mutual benefit for a common objective
Forces that lead to devolution of states Physical geography, ethnic separatism, terrorism, economic and social problems.
Difference between a state and a nation A nation is a group of people who see themselves as one group because of similar culture and history and seek political-territorial autonomy. A state has an agreed definition among the International community and politically constructed.
Example of imperialization Africa
Microstate a state that encompass a very small land area.
Stateless nation Examples- Palestine, Kurdistan, Saami
Economic devolution splitting of a state due to differences in economics
Centrifugal forces that divide people in a state
Centripetal forces that unify a people in a state
devolution is the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state
multinational state a state with more than one nation inside its borders
multistate nation When a nation stretches across borders and across states
state is a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government.
nation Refer to a group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial autonomy. All nations are ultimately mixtures of different peoples
Stateless nation example the Kurds
The three basic tenets of world-systems theory, as Immanuel Wallerstein defines Capitalism, commodification, and the three tiered world economy structure, of core, periphery, and semi periphery.
Federalism all power vested in the provinces of the country, except those explicitly given to the federal government.
classic geopolitics schools the German school and the US/Britain school
German school Tried to explain why certain states were powerful and how they became powerful. Friedrick Ratzel
US/Britain school Land-based power, not sea power, would ultimately rule the world. Sir Halford J. Mackinder
Unilateralism One country in position of dominance and other countries follow its lead.
Deterritorialization globalization, networked communities, etc. undermine the state’s traditional territorial authority
Reterritorialization the state is moving to solidify control over the territory.
Define a boundary boundary in a treaty-like legal document in which actual points in the landscape or points of latitude and longitude are described.
Delimit a boundary the boundary by drawing on a map
Definitional boundary disputes disputes focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement.
Locational boundary disputes disputes center on the delimitation and possibly the demarcation of the boundary. The definition is not in dispute, but its interpretation is.
Operational boundary disputes involve neighbors who differ over the way their border should function.
Allocational boundary disputes becoming more common as the search for resources intensifies.
Demarcate a boundary demarcate the boundary by using steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, walls, or some other visible means to mark the boundary on the ground.
Geometrical boundaries are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range
physical-political boundaries follow an agreed upon figure in the natural landscape
Peace of Westphalia negotiated in 1648, marks the beginning of the modern state system
Devolution in Europe France, Spain, United Kingdom, Italy, Poland
Heartland theory Halford Mackinder, Political power based on the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate world. Easter Europe controlled access to the Euraisain interior, its ruler would command a vast heartland to the east.
superimposed boundary a boundary or border line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern or imposed by external powers
Created by: Zandertoy