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Stack #216355

Phlebotomy Chap 6 Circulatory system to Pg186

QuestionAnswer
The circulatory system is the means by which ___? and __? are carried to the cells of the body. oxygen and food
Name the two systems that make up the circulatory system of the body? cardiovascular system / lymphatic system
Please define what the cardiovascular system is made up of? system made up of (heart, blood and blood vessels)
Please define what the lymphatic system is made up of? system made up of (lymph, lymph vessels and nodes)
The circulatory system is also the means by which __? and __? are carried away from the cells to the excretory organs. Carbon dioxide and other wastes
Name the 3 excretory organs: Excretory organs are the kidneys, lungs, and skin
Name 3 things the circulatory system also does? aids in the coagulation process, assists in defending the body against disease, and plays an important role in regulation of body temperature.
cardiovascular system snd lymphatic system are part of what system in the body? Circulatory
True or False? The circulatory system is the means by which oxygen and food are carried away from the cells of the body. False, they are carried TO the cells of the body
What system is made up of (heart, blood and blood vessels)? cardiovascular system
What system is made up of (lymph, lymph vessels and nodes)? lymphatic system
Which direction does food and oxygen travel in the circulatory system of the body? direction: TO the cells of the body.
Which direction does Carbon dioxide and other wastes travel in the circulatory system of the body? direction: AWAY from the cells to excretory organs
What type of organs are the kidneys, lungs, and skin? Excretory organs
What body system plays an important role in the regulation of body temperature? Circulatory system
What body system aids in the coagulation process? Circulatory system
What body system assists in defending the body against disease? Circulatory system
What Organ is the major structure of the circulatory system? The Heart
The heart is the "___"? that circulates blood throughout the body. Pump
What cavity of the body is the heart located in? Thoracic cavity
Where is the Thoracic cavity located in the body? It is located between the lungs with the apex (tip) pointing down and to the left of the body.
Which direction does the apex of the heart point in the thoracic cavity? the apex (tip) points down and to the left of the body.
How many chambers are there in the heart? Four chambers and hollow
What type of organ is the heart? Muscular organ
The heart's size is described to be the size of What? (compared to something) slightly larger size of a man's closed fist.
The heart is surrounded by a thin, fluid-filled sac called ___? and its walls have 3 distinct layers. pericardium (per'i-kar'de-um)
The heart has ___? sides, a ___? and ___? Each side has __? chambers an ___? and ___?. two, right and left, each side has two chambers an upper and lower
Name the fluid filled sac that surrounds the heart. pericardium (per'i-kar'de-um)
True or False is the heart hollow? True
True or false does the apex (tip) or the heart point upward in the throracic cavity? False. it points downward
True or false the size of the heart is described to be the size of an apple? False.slightly larger size of a man's closed fist.
What organ of the body has 4 hollow chambers and 2 sides? The heart
In the Heart what type of valves help prevent the back flow of blood and keep it flowing through the heart in the right direction? One way valves
In the Heart, the right and left chambers are separated from each other by partitions called? septa (singular. septum)
Name the 3 layers of the heart? epicardium (ep'-i-kar'de-um)myocardium (mi-o-kar'de-um)endocardium (en'do'kar'de-um)
Where is the epicardium (ep'-i-kar'de-um) layer of the heart located? it is the thin outer layer of the heart
Where is the myocardium (mi-o-kar'de-um) layer of the heart located? it is the middle muscle layer of the heart
Where is the endocardium (en'do'kar'de-um)layer of the heart located? it is the inner layer of the heart
What are the upper chambers on each side of the heart called? atrium
What are the lower chambers on each side of the heart called? ventricle
The receiving chambers of the heart are called? the atria
The pumping or delivering chambers of the heart are called ? the ventricles
What are the valves called at the entrance to ventricles called? called atrioventricular (AV) valves
How are the atrioventricular valves attached to the walls of the ventricles? by thin threads of tissue called chordae (kor'de) tendineae(ten-din-'e-e) which keep the valves from flipping back into the atria.
What 3 arteries branch off from the Aortic Arch. from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Brachiocephalic arteryLeft common carotid artery Left subclavian artery
Name the 2 branches of the Pulmonary trunk?from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Left pulmonary artery (branches)Right Pulmonary artery (branches)
Where is the Superior Vena Cava located in the heart Right atrium or right ventricle? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Right atrium
Where does the blood flow into from the Inferior vena Cava? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Right Atrium
What are the Valve's called between the right atrium and the right ventricle?from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Right AV (tricuspic) valve
Where is the interventricular septum located in the heart?from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 located between right and left ventricles
Where is the apex of the heart located? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 It is located in the center of the thoracic cavity between the lungs with the apex (tip) pointing down and to the left of the body.
The Superior Vena Cava and the Inferior Vena Cava flow into which chamber of the heart? Right or left? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Right Atrium
Which right and left artery branches flow out of the Right ventricle of the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Left and right pulmonary artery's
Which chamber of the heart does the right and left pulmonary veins flow into the heart?from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Left Atrium
Where is the ascending aorta located in the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 It is located between right and left Atriums ascending toward the aortic arch.
where is the Aortic Valve located in the heart?from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 it is located between the pulmonary trunk and the left atrium.
Which direction does blood flow in the heart if it comes from the Superior or inferior vena cava? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Blood flows into the Right Atrium
After blood flows into right atrium of the heart where does it go? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Blood flows into the Right Ventricle thru the Right AV tricuspid valve and upward thru the pulmonary trunk, into the right and left pulmonary artery to the lungs.
Which direction does the blood flow in the heart coming from the left and right pulmonary veins? Blood flows into the Left Atrium
After blood flows into left atrium of the heart where does it go? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Blood flows into the Left Ventricle thru the Left AV Mitral valve and upward thru the aortic valve to go thru the Ascending Aorta.
Name the 4 valves in the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 Right AV Valve (tricuspid valve)/ Left AV valve (mitral valve)/ Right semilunar valve (pulmonary or pulmonic valve) / Left semilunar valve (aortic valve)
Name the thin outer layer of the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 epicardium (ep'-i-kar'de-um) layer
Name the middle muscle layer of the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 myocardium (mi-o-kar'de-um)layer
Name the inner layer of the heart? from Pg 179 diagram 6-1 endocardium (en'do'kar'de-um)layer
Give the description and function of the epicardium (ep'-i-kar'de-um) layer? Pg 180 tb6-1 description: Thin serous (watery)membrane that is continuous with the lining of the pericardium. Funtion: Covers the heart and attaches to the pericardium
Give the description and function of myocardium (mi-o-kar'de-um)layer? pg 180 tb6-1 Description: Thick layer of cardiac muscle Function: Contracts to pump blood into the arteries
Give the description and function of endocardium (en'do'kar'de-um)layer? pg 180tb6-1 Description: thin layer of epithelial cells that is continuous with the lining of the blood vessels Function: Lines the interior chambers and valves.
The valves that exit the ventricles are called what? and why? called semilunar valves because they are crescent shaped like the moon (latin, luna)
There are two partitions separating the right and left sides of the heart. Name the partion that separates the right and left atria? Interatrial septum
Name the partition that separates the right and left ventricles in the heart? Interventricular septum
The Interatrial and Interventricular septum consists mostly of what type of layer or the heart? myocardium layer
Name the chamber of the heart that is located in the upper right chamber? pg180 tb6-2 Right Atrium
Name the chamber of the heart that is located in the lower right chamber? pg180 tb6-2 Right Ventricle
Name the chamber of the heart that is located in the upper left chamber? pg180 tb6-2 Left Atrium
Name the chamber of the heart that is located in the lower left chamber? pg180 tb6-2 Left Ventricle
What is the function of the Right Atrium? pg180 tb6-2 It receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the Superior (upper) vena cava and inferior (lower) vena cava and pumps it into the right ventricle.
What is the function of the Right Ventricle?pg180 tb6-2 it receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery which carries it to the lungs to be oxygenated
What is the function of the Left Atrium?pg180 tb6-2 Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it into the left ventricle.
What is the function of the Left ventricle? pg180 tb6-2 It receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta. The walls of the left ventricle are nearly three times as thick as the right ventricle owing to the force required to pump the blood into the arterial system.
Where is the location for the Right AV Valve?pg181 tb6-3 Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the location for the Left AV Valve?pg181 tb6-3 Between the left atrium and left ventricle
What is another namve for the Left AV Valve? pg181 tb6-3 Also called the bicuspid or mitral valve
What is another name for the right AV Valve? pg181 tb6-3 Also called the tricuspid valve
Where is the location for the Right Semilunar Valve? pg181 tb6-3 At the entrance to the pulmonary artery
Where is the location for the Left Semilunar valve? pg181 tb6-3 At the entrance to the aorta
What is another name for the Right semilunar valve? pg181 tb6-3 Also called Pulmonary or pulmonic valve)
What is another name for the Left semilunar valve? pg181 tb6-3 Also called aortic valve
Give a description of the Right AV Valve? pg181 tb6-3 Description: has three cusps(flaps) which is why also called tricuspid.
Give a function for the Right Tricuspid valve? pg181 tb6-3 Closes when the right ventricle contracts and prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium.
Give a description of the Left AV Valve?pg181 tb6-3 Has two cusps (flaps) which is why also called Bicuspid
Give a function of the left Bicuspid valve? pg181 tb6-3 Closes when the left ventricle contracts and prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium.
Give a description of the Right semilunar valve? Has a 3 half moon shaped cusps (flaps)
Give a function of the right pulmonary or pulmonic valve? Closes when the right ventricle relaxes and prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle.
Give a description of the Left semilunar valve?pg181 tb6-3 Has 3 half moon shaped cusps (flaps)
Give a function of the aortic valve? pg181 tb6-3 Closes when the left ventricle relaxes and prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.
True or False: The heart muscle does not receive nourishment or oxygen from blood passing through the heart. True
True or False? The heart muscle does not receive its blood supply via the right and left coronary arteries that branch off the aorta, just beyond the aortic semilunar valve. False The heart muscle DOES receive its blood supply via the right and left coronary arteries that branch off the aorta, just beyond the aortic semilunar valve.
What is a condition myocardial Ischemia mean? A condition where Partial obstruction of a coronary artery or one of its branches can reduce blood flow to a point where it is not adequate to meet the oxygen needs of the heart muscle.
What is a condition myocardial infarction (MI) mean? A condition where complete obstruction or prolonged ischemia leads to (MI) heart attack because of necrosis or death of the surrounding tissue from lack of oxygen.
What is a condition artherosclerosis mean? Fatty plague buildup can lead to sever narrowing of coronary arteries.
What is a cardiac cycle defined as? pg 182 One complete contraction and subsequent relaxation of the heart lasts about 0.8 seconds
True or False? For the heart to be effective at pumping blood the heart contractions must be synchronized (coordinated) so that both atria contract simultaneously, followed by contraction of both ventricles. True.
____? is achieved by means of specialized muscle cells that form the electrical conduction system. Synchronization
Instead of contracting these ____? cells act like nerve tissue in that the iniate and distribute electrical impulses throughout the myocardium to coordinate the cardiac cycle. muscle cells
The specialized tissues create an ______? conduction system pathway and include two tissue masses called __? and a network of specialized __? that branch throughout the myocardium. Electrical / Nodes / fibers
Heart contraction is initiated by an electrical __? generated from the __? node or SA node, also called the ___? at the start of the pathway. impulse / sinoatrial node (SA)/ pacemaker
Why is the sinoatrial node (SA) called the pacemaker? pg 183 because it sets the basic pace or rhythm of the heart beat.
Where are the sinoatrial nodes located in the heart? Upper wall of the right atrium
Where are the internodal pathway fibers located in the heart? Wall of the right atrium
Where are the Atrioventricular (AV) node located in the heart? Bottom of the right atrium in the interatrial septum
Where are the AV bundle (Bundle of His) located in the heart? Top of the interventricular septum
Identify which structure of the electrical conduction system pathway has this function? Relay the impulse to the atrioventricular (AV) node? Internodal pathway fibers
Identify which structure of the electrical conduction system pathway has this function?Relays impulse throughout the ventricular walls by means of bundle branches and Purkinje fibers. AV bundle (Bundle of His)This causes the ventricles to contract,forcing blood through the semilunar valves. both atria and ventricles relax briefly before the entire cycle starts again.
Identify which electrical structure has this function? Begins the heart beat by generating the electrical pulse that travels thru the muscles of both atria, causing them to contract simultaneously and push blood thru the AV valves into ventricles. Sinoatrial (SA) node
Identify which electrical structure has this function? Picks up the impulse, slows it down while the atria finish contracting and then relays it thru the aV bundle (Bundle of His) Atrioventricular (AV) node
The cardiac cycle can be recorded by means of an ___? (ECG or EKG) an actual record of the electrical currents that correspond to each event in the heart muscle contraction. Electrocardiogram
A Electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG) recording is called what? pg 183-184 It is called an ECG tracing see pg 184
Heart __? are recorded as waves when electrodes (leads or wires) are placed on the skin. Heart Contractions are recorded as waves
The P Wave of the tracing represents the activity of the __? and is usually the __? wave seen. activity of atria and is usually the first wave seen.
The QRS complex (a collection of __? waves), along with the T Wave, represents the activity of the ___? a collection of 3 waves, activity of the ventricles
An Electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in diagnosing ?__ muscle damage and ?___ in heart rate. heart muscle damage and abnormalities in heart rate.
As the Ventricles contract (systole) the atrioventricular valves close, resulting in the first heart sound, a long, low-pitched sound commonly described as a "__?_" "lubb"
the second heart sound comes at the beginning of ventricular relaxtion (diastole) and is due to the closing of the semilunar valves. It is shorter and sharper and described as a "__?_" "dubb"
Abnormal heart sounds are called __?__ and are often due to faulty valve action. Murmurs
In Electrocardiogram ECG tracing Name the identifers for one cardiac cycle. P Wave represents activity of the atria and is usually the first wave seen./QRS complex(a collection of 3 waves) along with the T wave represents activity of ventricles.
The P wave of ECG tracing represents what ____?depolarization in mm time (sec)? Atrial depolarization
The QRS complex of ECG tracing represents what __?__ depolarization? Ventricle depolarization
The T wave of ECG tracing represents what __?__REpolarization? Ventricular REpolarization
One complete contraction and subsequent relaxation of the heart. About how long does one cardiac cycle take? About 0.8 seconds
What test is useful in diagnosing heart muscle damage and abnormalities in heart rate. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
A long, low pitched sound commonly described as a "lubb" Is the result of what action in the heart? As the ventricles contract (systole), the atrioventricular vavles close, resulting in the first heart sound "lubb"
The second heart sound is shorter and sharper and described as a "dubb" Is the result of what action in the heart? The second heart sound comes at the beginning of ventricular relaxation and is due to the closing of the semilunar valves.
Which sound of the heart beat is referred to the first heart sound? "lubb"
Which sound of the heart beat is referred to the second heart sound? "dubb"
Murmurs in the heart are often due to ? faulty valve action
the heart rate is the number of heart beats per minute. Normal adult heart rate averages ? 72 beats per minute
The volume of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute is called ? Cardiac Output
Cardiac output averages _?_ liters per minute? 5 liters
An irregularity in the heart rate, rhythm, or beat is called ? Arrhythmia
A slow rate, less than 60 beats per minute is called? Bradycardia
A fast rate over 100 beats per minute, is called ? Tachycardia
Extra beats before the normal beat are called? Extrasystoles
Rapid, uncoordinated contractions are called ?__and can result in a lack of pumping action. fibrillations
The _?_ is the palpable rythmic throbbing caused by the alternating expansion and contraction of an artery as a wave of blood passes through it. The Pulse
The pulse is created as the _?_ contract and blood is forced out of the heart and through the __?_. Ventricles contract, throught the arteries
In normal individuals, the pulse rate is the same as the heart rate. What is the average adult heart rate? 72 beats per minute
The pulse is most easily felt by compressing the radial artery on the _?_ side of the wrist. The thumb side
_?_ pressure is a measure of the force (pressure) exerted by the blood on the walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure
Th blood pressure is commonly measured in a large _?_ (such as the _?_ _?_ in the upper arm) using a _?__ more commonly known as a "blood pressure cuff" pg 185 large artery, brachial artery in the upper arm,sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff)
Blood pressure results are expressed in millimeters of _?_ (mm Hg) and are read from a _?__ that is either a _?_ or _?_ _?__depending on the type of blood pressure cuff used. of Mercury, that is either a gauge or mercury column
Name the two components of blood pressure measured? Systolic pressure and Diastolic pressure
Define systolic pressure: the pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles
Define diastolic pressure: the arterial pressure during relaxation of the ventricles
How is a blood pressure reading verbally xpressed in writing? systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure.
Average blood pressure of diastolic reading of 80 and systolic reading of 120 written out? 120/80systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure.
To obtain a brachial blood pressure reading where do you place a blood pressure cuff and a stethoscope? By placing a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm and a steathoscope over the brachial artery.
The BP cuff is inflated until the brachial _?_ is compressed and the blood flow is _?_ _?_. brachial artery, blood flow is cut off.
The the BP cuff is slowly _?_ until the first heart sounds are heard with the _?_. slowly deflated, heard with the stethoscope
Using BP cuff,the first heart sounds heard at this time is the _?_ pressure. This would be the first reading of BP pressure. systolic pressure
The BP cuff is slowly deflated until a muffled sound is heard, the pressure at this time is _?_ pressure. diastolic pressure
Name this Heart disorder: Pain on exertion, caused by inadequate blood flow to the myocardium from the coronary arteries. Heart disorder: Angina pectoris also called ischemic heart disease (IHD)
Name this Heart disorder: narrowing of the aorta or its opening Heart disorder:Aortic stenosis
Name this Heart disorder:an infection of the lining of the heart, most commonly caused by streptococci Heart disorder:Bacterial Endocarditis
Name this Heart disorder:impaired circulation caused by inadequate pumping of a diseased heart, resulting in fluid buildup (edema) in the lungs or other tissues. Heart disorder: Congestive Heart failure (CHF)
Name this Heart disorder: heart attack or death of heart muscle due to obstruction (occlusion) of a coronary artery. Heart disorder: Myocardial infarction (MI)
Name this Heart disorder: insufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the heart muscle. Heart disorder: Myocardial ischemia
Name this Heart disorder: inflammation of the pericardium Heart disorder: Pericarditis
Define this Heart Disorder;Aortic stenosis Heart Disorder:narrowing of the aorta or its opening
Define this Heart Disorder;Bacterial Endocarditis Heart Disorder:an infection of the lining of the heart, most commonly caused by streptococci
Define this Heart Disorder;Congestive Heart failure (CHF) Heart Disorder: impaired circulation caused by inadequate pumping of a diseased heart, resulting in fluid buildup (edema) in the lungs or other tissues.
Define this Heart Disorder;Myocardial infarction (MI) Heart Disorder: heart attack or death of heart muscle due to obstruction (occlusion) of a coronary artery.
Define this Heart Disorder;Myocardial ischemia Heart Disorder: insufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the heart muscle.
Define this Heart Disorder;Pericarditis Heart Disorder: inflammation of the pericardium
Define this Heart Disorder; Angina pectoris also called ischemic heart disease (IHD) Heart Disorder: Pain on exertion, caused by inadequate blood flow to the myocardium from the coronary arteries.
When a person has a heart attack the heart muscle is damaged, releassing the enzymes _?_and _?_ into the blood stream. Enzymes CK and AST into the blood stream.
A sample of blood can be tested for CK and AST enzymes. If the results are elevated what is suspected to have happened? a heart attack is suspected
See pg 186 Box 6-1 Examples of Heart Tests.Can you name first column 6 examples? see answers for next card for 7 more. *arterial blood gasses (ABGs)*Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)or serum glutamic-oxaloacetid transaminase(SGOT)*cholesterol*creatine kinase(CK)*creatine kinase(CK)-MB*Digoxin*Electrocardiogram(ECG OR EKG)*Lactate dehydrogenase(LD)isoenzymens
See pg 186 Box 6-1 Examples of Heart Tests.Can you name SECOND column 7 examples? *Electrocardiogram(ECG OR EKG)*Lactate dehydrogenase(LD)isoenzymens*microbial cultures*myoglobin*Potassium(K)*Triglycerides*Troponin T (Tnt)
Created by: Account65