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Holy War Crusades

Crusade information on both muslim and christian accounts

early and formative period of christian Church 1st - 4th century AD end of this period is when the roman empire declared christianity as its empire region
middle ages 5th-15th century AD
modern christian church 15th century to present
merovingian dynasty first european empire , founded by Clovis
carolingian dynasty second european empire, founded by Charlemagne
feudal system/ feudalism feudalism is a social structure. serf- does not own land but works on land for a master and can not move land, but not a slave Vassal- master of land, usually given to them by king or lord Lord- usually a king overruling a certain county
monarchy a form of government where one person holds all sovereignty until death , usually King- purely political title, exc.branch Count- king gives land to govern, called counties marquis - given land between counties to govern duke -
Clovis 466-551 frist barbarian king converted to christianity, founded merovingian dynasty
Charlemagne 768-814 second barbarian king, first european king, carolingian dynasty and in 800 ad. crowned king of roman empire and protector of christian faith
monarchial episcopate bishop (priest) has the power over a district
Metropolitan churches Jerusalem, rome (catholic), Constantinople (orthodox), Alexandria, Syrian, Antioch. Top five churches
papal primacy about the status of the bishop of rome compared to other metropolitan churches. Pope Leo 1 stated that the bishop of rome is more important than any other because peter was the bishop of rome.
theocracy religious leaders are also secular leaders
orthodox christianity 1054 ad the christian church formally split into orthodoxy and christianity
church of seven councils from the 4th century starting with the council of Nicaea - to the 8th century, representatives of all christian churches meet at councils to settle disagreements and hammer out christian doctrines
ousia essence of things, god is one in essence
hypostasia a person through which essence shines
Filioque "from the father and from the son"
heresy christian doctrine from certain sects that was wrong in the eyes of the majority
gnosticism heretical movement that threatened the catholic church by claiming that the world was not created by a loving god and that jesus never existed as a human being; was a heresy
cathars medieval heresy that believed the world to be an evil creation
waldensians medieval heresy that believed christians should live a poor simple life.
inquisition (1184) a suspect of heresy was handed over to civic authority for punishment
asceticism lifetime of chastity, dedicating all time to the lord
orthodox split caused by papal primacy, constaninople didn't agree with pope of rome so he left. began in 5th century but was formalized in 1054 when they cursed each other.
doctrine of the trinity constintine convinced council in nicaea to create a unity in christianity. father son holy spirit is one god cause of ousia.
monasticism communal form of ascetic lifestyle. community of people who practice ascetic lifestyle
Cluny reform 10th century created first religious order- union of a series of monasteries with a strong hierarchical organization
knights templar 12-14th century order for monks to fighting holy land
friars 13th century ideological orders of franciscans , dominicans , carmelites, augustians
just war (vellum justum) compositions of a just war formulated by st. augustine (4-5th c) and expanded by st. thomas aquinas (13th c.) two principles : right to go to war and right conduct of war
crusade "taking up the cross" - spiritual reason to go to war
Indulgence formal remission of sins in catholic church
the inquisition (11th and 12th c.) started in order to surprise the heresy. an inquisitor was appointed by the pope.
original sin all humans are naturally evil. st.augstine. way out baptism and following christ.
religious order designed for monks and nuns , used as just war.
just war thomas aquinas ; right to go to war just authority - must be a body of people to declare war must be just cause- war should be defensive, . right intention- war is limited to righting the wrong. last resort- when we've tried everything else war is the last option
just war st.thomas aquinas ; right conduct proportionality - respond with proportional use discrimination - during war no force against non-compantants responsibility - country who went to war is not responsible for unintended consequences
1st crusades started formal cause to take back Jerusalem and byzantine emperor asked for help
arguments for crusades by pope urban political- byzantine was in trouble, muslims wanted to tear down churches, spiritual- all who fight in war will go to heaven, indulgence from pope if you go to war. material rewards - you get lands if you fight.
1st crusade 1095-99 only successful crusade, launched by pope urban
2nd crusade 1147-49 recapture Jerusalem
3rd crusade 1187-92 recapture Jerusalem
4th crusade 1202-04 recapture Jerusalem
5th crusade 1217-21 capture Jerusalem through Egypt
6th crusade 1228-29 Jerusalem through Egypt
7th crusade 1248-54 Jerusalem through Egypt
8th crusade 1270 Jerusalem through Egypt
9th crusade 1271-72 Jerusalem through Egypt
Saladin leader of muslim forces who took back Jerusalem in 1187 during third crusade
chronology of Palestine 63 bc- romans occupied. 636 ad- muslims conquer 1063 ad - pope alexander blessed Iberian christian in war. 1095- first crusade launched by pope urban the 2
prophet Mohammad 570-632 mercian period 601-622 median period 622-632 constitution of medina
righteous caliphs abu bakr 632-44 uthman 644-56 ali 656-61
united kingship caliphate 661-1250 single state ruled by caliph
umayyad caliphate 661-750 changed islam to absolute monarchy, one of largest single states in history
abbasid caliphate 750-1258 golden age of islam elasuis
scattered staes with caliphate 945-1517 single state to big to rule so ruled by local leader caliph purely symbolic of successor of Mohammad
scattered states without caliph 1517- present
constitution of medina first written constitution lays laws of islamic state , freedom of consciousness and religion
omma all people who live in a region
pope leo papal primacy
pope Gelasuis pope is higher authority than king because he crowns the king
pope Gregory the great popes as de facto ruler of central italy
pope john 8 right for popes to chose kings
pope Gregory 7 asserted papal primacy
pope urban the second launched crusades
Created by: stucker001



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