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Asian Rulers

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Shi Huangd first emperor of China; founder of Qin dynasty.
Confucius major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century B.C.E.; sayings collected in Analects; philosophy based on the need for restoration of social order through the role of superior men.
Buddha creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for earthly things.
Yangdi second Sui ruler; restored Confucian examination system; constructed canal system; assassinated in 618.
Li Yuan Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over the empire after the assassination of Yangdi; first Tang ruler.
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690–705; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Wuzong Tang emperor (841–847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism.
Xuanzong leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, although he encouraged overexpansion.
Yang Guifei royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.
Zhao Kuangyin general who founded Song dynasty; took royal name of Taizu.
Khitans founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture.
Zhu Xi most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life.
neo-Confucians revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song-era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Tangut rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226.
Wang Anshi Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song ruler in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Jurchens founders of Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee south.
Fujiwara mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Taira powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars.
bakufu military government established by the Minamoto following Gumpei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Ashikaga Takuaji member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
daimyos warlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
khagan title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Batu grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236.
Ogedei third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded him as Mongol khagan.
Kubilai Khan grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Zhu Yuanzhang Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty.
Hongwu first Ming emperor (1368–1403); drove out the Mongols and restored the position of the scholar-gentry.
Oda Nobunaga the first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573, deposed the last Ashikaga shogun; unified much of central Honshu; died in 1582.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daimyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Nurhaci (1559–1626); united the Manchus in the early 17th century; defeated the Ming and established the Qing dynasty.
Kangxi Qing ruler and Confucian scholar (1661–1722); promoted Sinification among the Manchus.
Lin Zexu (somewhat important) 19th-century Chinese official charged during the 1830s with ending the opium trade in southern China; set off the events leading to the Opium War.
Hong Xiuquan leader of Taiping Rebellion; converted to Chinese form of Christianity; attacked Confucian teachings.
Zeng Guofan Qing official who successfully fended off Taiping assault on northern China; proponent of political and economic reform.
Cixi conservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty.
Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925); Chinese revolutionary leader, of scholar-gentry background.
Puyi last Qing ruler; deposed in 1912.
Yuan Shikai warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China.
Li Dazhao Chinese Marxist intellectual; rejected traditional views and instead saw peasants as the vanguard of socialist revolution; influenced Mao Zedong.
Chiang Kai-shek leader of the Guomindang from 1925; contested with the communists for control of China until defeated in 1949.
Corazon Aquino president of Philippines (r. 1986–1992).
Zhou Enlai premier of China from 1954; notable as perhaps the most cosmopolitan and moderate of the inner circle Communist leaders.
Liu Shaoqui Chinese communist pragmatist; with Deng Xiaoping, came to power in 1959 after Mao was replaced; purged in 1966 as Mao returned to power.
Deng Xiaoping one of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; emerged as China’s most influential leader in the early 1980s.
Nguyen Anh (Gia Long) with French support, unified Vietnam under the Nguyen dynasty in 1802, with the capital at Hue.
Minh Mang second ruler of united Vietnam (1802–1841); emphasized Confucianism and persecuted Catholics.
Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc) shifted to a revolution based on the peasantry in the 1930s; presided over the defeat of France in 1954 and the unsuccessful U.S. intervention in Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem became president of South Vietnam with U.S. support in the 1950s; overthrown by the military with U.S. approval.
Vo Nguyen Giap military commander of the Viet Minh and the victor at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
Created by: willsears1