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Revolutionary Wars

Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Peloponnesian War war from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for domination in Greece; the Spartans won but failed to achieve political unification in Greece.
Punic Wars three wars (264–146 B.C.E.) between Rome and the Carthaginians; saw the transformation of Rome from a land to a sea power.
Ridda wars wars following Muhammad’s death; resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored the unity of Islam.
Battle of Siffin fought in 657 between Ali and the Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party.
Battle of the River Zab 750; Abbasid victory over the Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital.
Crusades military campaigns launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms (until 1291). later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and ending heresy.
Gempei wars waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira.
Battle of Kulikova Russian victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
English Civil War conflict from 1640 to 1660; included religious and constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of a limited monarchy.
Comunero Revolt a popular revolt against Spanish rule in New Granada in 1781; suppressed as a result of government concessions and divisions among rebels.
Pugachev rebellion unsuccessful peasant uprising led by cossack Emelyan Pugachev during the 1770s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter.
age of revolution period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution and ending with the Revolutions of 1848.
American Revolution rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
French Revolution overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon’s French Empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Greek Revolution rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
American Civil War (1861–1865) fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
Plassey (1757) battle between the troops of the British East India Company and the Indian ruler of Bengal; British victory gave them control of northeast India.
Isandhlwana (1879) Zulu defeat of a British army; one of the few indigenous victories over 19th-century European armies.
Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) fought between the British and Afrikaners; British victory and post-war policies left Africans under Afrikaner control.
Mexican-American War (1846–1848); American expansion leads to dispute over California and Texas.
La Reforma name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.
Spanish-American War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.
Opium War fought between Britain and Qing China beginning in 1839 to protect the British trade in opium; British victory demonstrated Western superiority over China.
Taiping Rebellion massive rebellion in southern China in the 1850s and 1860s led by Hong Xinquan; sought to overthrow the Qing dynasty and Confucianism.
Boxer Rebellion popular outburst aimed at expelling foreigners from China; put down by intervention of the Western powers.
Crimean War (1854–1856) began with a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; France and Britain joined on the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to Russian reforms under Alexander II.
Russo-Japanese War 1904; Russian expansion into northern China leads to war; rapid Japanese victory followed.
Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) fought in Korea between Japan and Qing China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.
Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920 civil war; challenged Porfirio Díaz in 1910 and initiated a revolution after losing fraudulent elections.
Spanish Civil War civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed.
Korean War fought from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea and its Soviet and Chinese allies and South Korea and United Nations’ forces directed by the United States; ended in stalemate.
Cultural Revolution initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to restore his dominance over the pragmatists; disgraced and even killed bureaucrats and intellectuals; called off in 1968.
Tayson Rebellion peasant revolution in southern Vietnam during the 1770s; toppled the Nguyen and the Trinh dynasties.
Persian Gulf War 1991 war between Iraq and a coalition of Western and some Arab states; Iraq defeated, Saddam Hussein left in power.
Created by: taylordlon