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World History C 16

Chapter 16 of World History, Study Guide

What is predestination? The Calvinist belief that which people are going to go to heaven is already decided
Which Protestant branch believed in predestination? Calvinism
From Italy, where did the Renaissance spread? All over Europe due to the printing press
Why were people becoming upset with the Church in the 16th century? Corruption, greedy, indulgence selling
What were the main motivators for the Age of Exploration (Age of Discovery)? Find a way around Islamic Gunpowder empires high taxes on goods from Asia, wealth
Which country was the first to launch large-scale exploration voyages? Portugal
What is the most significant accomplishment of Amerigo Vespucci? Discovering that the west Indies were a new land, not Asia
What is the most significant accomplishment of Sir Francis Drake? Defeating the Spanish Armada and being knighted. Completed second circumnavigation of world.
What is an encomienda? A charter by the Spanish Crown to let the explorer go off and conquer other lands in name of Spain
How did the arrival of Europeans affect Native Americans? Columbian exchange, goods went to and from, mostly livestock to and food from, diseases killed off most native peoples, also conquistadors killed them.
What religion were the Turks? Muslim
What are janissaries? Young Christian boys captured and trained to be Soldiers
Who used janissaries? Ottoman empire in Turkey
Describe the population of the Ottoman Empire? What was the diversity like? Big, lots of diversity, allowed others to continue practicing religion, many different races and religions, very tolerant
Who created the statue of David and the Pieta? Michelangelo (Pieta: virgin Mary holding dead Jesus)
Where did the Renaissance begin? Why? Began in Florence, wealth from middle ages was used to beautify cities, and less suffering and plague installed new view on life
How did Renaissance artists make their art look more realistic? Distance, three dimensional appearance, perspective
What is humanism? Individual worth and ability (decline in church influence= secularism)
Why were more people literate in the 15th century? Monks had been the only literate people, but new literature emerged, Johannes Gutenberg made printing press and made literature more rampant and required
Why did Martin Luther write the 95 Theses in Latin? Technically addressing church officials, and Latin was the language of the church
Who started the Protestant Reformation? Martin Luther
Which country was predominantly Anglican? England
Who wrote "The Prince"? Niccol├│ Machiavelli
What is meant by "the end justifies the means"? You may do anything as long as it is for a good cause
Who invented the printing press? Johannes Gutenberg
Describe the Council of Trent. Meeting of all major catholic leaders to restore religion
What does an astrolabe do? Device put up to eye to navigate by stars, use to calculate location based on position of sun and stars in relation to horizon
What was the ultimate goal of the early Portuguese explorers? To find a water route around Africa
What was the goal of early English, Dutch, and French explorers? To passage to Asia
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? A treaty between Spain and Portugal to split territory in the new world according to the line of demarcation
The population of Native Americans in Spanish colonies dropped by what %? 90%
What was the Columbian Exchange? Exchange of good across Atlantic ocean, food from Americas, livestock to Americas
What % of food crops grown in the world today are of American origin? 1/3 = 33.3%
Define mercantilism. Government protecting trade to amass wealth, a nation's strength is based on how much gold and silver it possessed
What is a conquistador? Spanish explorer and conqueror
Why did planters in the Americas have to start using African slaves for labor? Only African slaves, not native Americans, had immunity to European diseases
How did the Renaissance contribute to the Age of Exploration? The growth in trade and wealth allowed more expansion of the known world as well as providing in other empires, a reason to explore beyond in the seas for a rout to avoid taxes, new ideas enhanced beliefs in human achievement
What was an effect of the Columbian Exchange? Native Americans were wiped out , longevity for europeans
Who founded the Ottoman Empire? Osman Bey
Who was Suleyman I? Golden age ottoman empire ruler
Describe the way in which Shah Jahan ruled the Mughal Empire. Heavy taxes to build buildings
What innovation allowed the Ottoman Empire to expand? Gunpowder