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Middle Ages

Standard 6-5

What was Europe like by the early 500s? Warlords ruled over small states; Europe was divided into many small kingdoms
Who was Charlemagne? King of the Frankish Empire; Crowned "Emperor of the Romans" because he had conquered territories of the former Roman Empire
Feudalism A system of promises that governed the relationship between lords and vassals
Where did feudalism develop? Western Europe; France, England, and Low countries; eventually spread to Spain, Eastern Europe, and Russia
Fiefs Pieces of land
Vassal A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land
Describe the relationship between lords and knights. Nobles needed protection. In exchange for protection, nobles gave knights pieces of land. Nobles that did this became “lords”.
Describe the relationship between lords/knights and peasants. Lords and knights needed people to work the land. In exchange for a small piece of land, serfs/peasants worked the land for the lords.
Serfs Workers who were tied to the land in which they lived; were NOT slaves, but could not leave the land without lord's permission; in return for work, received a small piece of land for themselves
Who brought feudalism to England? William the Conqueror
How did feudalism affect England? It weakened the power of the nobles and strengthened the power of the monarchy (king); over time, nobles began to reject the power of the king
Explain what happened in England in 1215. A group of nobles forced the king to recognize, and respect, their rights; the nobles and king met in a field near Runnymede, near London, and the nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta
What is the Magna Carta? A document that listed the rights for the people, the king could not ignore
What does Magna Carta mean? "Great Charter"
What did the Magna Carta require? Required the king to honor certain rights, and required that everyone, including the king, had to obey the law
Give an example of one of the requirements of the Magna Carta. Habeas corpus; a person could not be kept in jail without reason; had to be charged with a crime and convicted at a jury trial before being sent to prison
Parliament The lawmaking body that governs England today
What happened by the late 1600s in England? People demanded that judges be free from royal control; they believed that judges chosen by the king would always side with the king; by the late 1600s, the king agreed to free the courts from his control
Why was the creation of an independent judicial system important? Was a key step in bringing democracy to England
What was the Black Death? A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
Where did the Black Death come from? Originally came from central and eastern Asia
How did people get the Black Death? Fleas that bit infected rats, would jump onto people and infect them (rats -->fleas-->humans)
How did the Black Death affect England? In some villages, nearly everyone died or people fled when their neighbors became infected; In England alone, about 1,000 villages were abandoned
Describe the impact of the Black Death on Europe. Plague killed millions of people in Europe and millions more around the world; Some historians think Europe lost about a third (1/3) of its population (possibly 25 million)
Describe the impact of the Black Death on the Manor System. Manor system fell apart in some places; Not enough people to work in the fields; Peasants and serfs could demand wages for their labor; Once they had the money, many fled the manors
Created by: NYongue