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Module 2

Chapter 5

Latium The plain on which Rome was located
Apennines North-South mountain range which divides the Italian peninsula
Etruscans City-dwellers settled north of Rome; believed to have emigrated from modern day western Turkey
Etruscans impact on Rome constructed the first roadbed of the chief street through Rome; impacted dress (toga and cloak)
consuls CEOs of Roman Republic; led the Roman army into battle
praetor Primary function was execution of justice; could serve as a consul in one's absence.
Roman Senate Not a legislative body and could only advise the magistrates; virtually had the power of law by third century BC.
Centuriate assembly the Roman army functioning in its political role. Wealthiest citizens always had the majority.
patricians and plebeians patricians - descended from original senators; essentially an aristocratic governing class. Plebeians - poor unprivileged vulnerable men
Struggle of the orders wealthy plebians wanted political equality with the patricians
council of the plebs given power to protect plebeians against arrest by patrician magistrates
plebiscita "opinion of the plebs," essentially laws governing only the plebeians
Canuleian Law passed in 445 BC, allowing plebians and patricians to marry
Hortensian Law mandated that plebiscita had the force of law over all people, and
Roman Confederation Allowed some people to become full citizens; found a way to give conquered states a stake in Rome's success
Carthage and the Punic Wars Wars between Rome and Carthage; began with the conquest of Sicily.
Hannibal Took command of the Carthaginian forces at 25; proved a formidable opponent to Caesar.
Scipio Africanus and the Battle of Zama The final battle deciding the outcome of the punic wars; Spain was made into a roman province.
Grammaticus and the liberal arts A Grammaticus was a grammarian; run schools based on liberal arts such as literature, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music
nobiles powerful political families; essentially the men whose families were elected to the more important political offices of the Republic.
optimates vs. populares Two types of aristocratic leaders, optimates were "the best of men" and populares were "favoring the people"
equestrians Struggling political party in Rome; the law barred these men from serving in high offices because it would force them to quit their livelihoods to serve the senate.
Tiberius and Gaius Graccha Nobile brothers who served as rulers of Rome; Tiberius was assassinated for his land reform bill, taking large tracts of land from wealthy Romans and redistributing it. Gaius furthered his brother's work and was also killed.
Marius vs Sulla Marius ended the war in northern Africa and also challenged the Gauls; Sulla took Rome and spent the rest of his career "reconstituting the Republic," giving power back to the Senators
Pompey Senator and later general to Caesar, was asked to abandon his military campaigns; fled to Greece and was opposed by Caesar, then fleeing to Egypt where the king had him killed.
Julius Caesar Famous Roman senator-turned-general, credited with the defeat of the Gauls. Generous defeator, eventually assassinated thanks to the belief that the old Republic would return
Octavian vs. Antony Octavian took command to replace Caesar; Antony was a companion of Octavian but eventually came to differences with each other. Antony commited suicide,leaving Octavian standing supreme over the Roman world.
Battle of Actium The battle in which Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra, sending them both fleeing to Egypt where they committed suicide.
Created by: jdj022487