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Military Leaders

AP World History Stearns Military Leaders

TermDefinition
Muhammad of Ghur 1173-1206 Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind and n.w. India under his control.
Belisarius (c. 505–565); one of Justinian’s most important military commanders during the attempted reconquest of western Europe; commanded in north Africa and Italy.
Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from Muslims.
Pachacuti Inca ruler (1438–1471); began the military campaigns that marked the creation of an Inca empire.
Castile and Aragon regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Abbas I, the Great Safavid shah (1587–1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daimyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Tokugawa Ieyasu vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.
Simon Bolívar Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
Hammurabi the most important Babylonian ruler; responsible for codification of the law.
Alexander the Great successor of Philip II; successfully conquered the Persian empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
Cyrus the Great (c. 576 or 590–529 B.C.E.); founded Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires.
Philip of Macedonia ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; conquered Greece.
Julius Caesar general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in B.C.E. by conservative senators.
Hannibal Carthaginian general during the second Punic War; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome.
Mu’awiya 602-680 Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali.
Abu Bakr The first caliph or leader of the Muslim faithful elected after Muhammad's death in 632. Renown for his knowledge of the nomadic tribes who then dominated the Islamic community.
Saladin (1137–1193); Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam.
Chinggis Khan (1162–1227); born 1170's following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of Mongol tribes in 1206; conquered northern kingdoms of China to Abbasid regions; died 1227 before the conquest of most of the Islamic world.
Hulegu 1217-1265 Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257.
Muhammad ibn Qasim 661-750 Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus Valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire.
Mahmud of Ghazni 971-1030 Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Muhammad the Great extended the boundaries of Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century.
Charlemagne Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany circa 800.
William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Xuanzong leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, although he encouraged overexpansion.
Ashikaga Takuaji member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Batu grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236.
Ogedei third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded him as Mongol khagan.
Kubilai Khan grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Francisco Pizarro (1478–1541); Spanish explorer; arrived in the Americas in 1502; joined Balboa in Panama, then successfully attacked the Inca Empire.
Osei Tutu important ruler who began centralization and expansion of Asante.
Ivan IV (the Terrible) confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
Peter I (the Great) tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Mehmed II “the Conqueror”; Ottoman sultan; captured Constantinople, 1453, and destroyed the Byzantine Empire.
Ismâ’il Safavid leader; conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah.
Aurangzeb son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire’s resources; died in 1707.
Oda Nobunaga the first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573, deposed the last Ashikaga shogun; unified much of central Honshu; died in 1582.
Napoleon Bonaparte army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815.
Mahmud II 19th-century Ottoman sultan who built a private, professional army; crushed the Janissaries and initiated reforms on Western precedents.
Kangxi Qing ruler and Confucian scholar (1661–1722); promoted Sinification among the Manchus.
Adolph Hitler Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Benito Mussolini Fascist premier of Italy (r. 1922–1943); formed the fascio di combattimento in 1919.
Joseph Stalin Lenin’s successor as leader of the U.S.S.R.; strong nationalist view of communism; crushed opposition to his predominance; ruled U.S.S.R. until his death in 1953.
Yuan Shikai warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China.
Mao Zedong communist leader who advocated the role of the peasantry in revolution; led the communists to victory and ruled China from 1949 to 1976.
Lin Bao one of Mao Zedong’s military associates.
Created by: Apatrickjones