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Module 2

HIS101 Chapter 4

TermDefinition
Macedonia Kingdom to the north of Greece; used Greek allies to conquer much of the east
Phillip II Macedonian king who paved the way for his son, Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian empire
Phillipics The oratories of Demosthenes which portrayed Phillip II as ruthless, deceitful, treacherous, and barbaric, and called on the Athenians to oppose him
Demosthenes Athenian orator, author of the Phillipics and opposer to Phillip II's ruling tactics
Isocrates Athenian teacher who viewed Phillip II as a savior who could unite the Greeks and organize them as a whole to oppose the Persians
Battle of Chaeronea Athens and Thebes' attempt to overthrow the Macedonians and Phillip II, This allowed Phillip to consolidate control over the Greek peninsula
hegemon leader of the Macedonian army (Phillip II)
Hellenistic word derived from the Greek language meaning "to imitate Greeks"
Alexander the Great Son of Phillip II, became king at age 20, conquered much of the east including Babylon and Egypt; opinions of him are controversial. Died at age 32
Battles of the Grannicus River and Issuss Battle between the Macedonians and Persians fought on a narrow field, giving Alexander's men the tactical advantage to defeat the Persian's formidable numbers
Battle of Gaugamela Another battle between the Macedonians and the Persians fought on an open field, which allowed the Macedonians to effectively use their chariots to win the battle; They then took over Babylon and acquired the Persian treasuries.
Darius III The Persian king who twice met Alexander the Great on the field of battle; notorious for fleeing the field of battle before the victory was decided
Alexander's Legacy Controversial opinions on Alexander the Great; some praise his military tactics and willingness to fight amongst his men; others describe him as a ruthless barbarian who murdered indigenous peoples and sacrificed soldiers for his own selfish ventures.
Upper class women in Hellenistic society Hellenistic women were more involved in culture; they played an increasing role in managing slaves, selling property, and making loans.
gymnasium Formerly an athletic institution, the gymnasium was now a secondary school focusing on music, physical activity, and literature, particularly Homer.
Alexandria The massive library drew a number of scholars and authors;
Theocritus Originally a Sicilian native, created "idylls" which were little poems dealing with erotic themes, lovers complaints and pastoral themes expressing his love of nature and appreciation of its beauty
Polybius Chief historian of the Hellenistic age; major work consisted of 40 books narrating the history of the "inhabited Mediterranean world" from 221 to 146 BC.
Aristarchus of Samos scholar who argued the universe was "heliocentric" that the sun and stars were stationary while the earth rotated around the sun as well as its own axis
Eratosthenes Determined that the earth was round and estimated its circumference to be 24,675 miles.
Archimedes Established the mathematical constant of pi; known for his work in geometry of spheres and cylinders; emphasized the importance of levers and made advancements in the field of specific gravity
Hippocrates, Herophilus, Erasistratus All physicians; Hippocrates separated medicine from philosophy; Herophilus and Erasistratus both used dissection and vissection to discover more about the eyes, brain, liver, and digestive system.
Epicurus' ideas on happiness and pleasure The universe ran on its own; happiness was the goal of life, and the means to achieve it was the pursuit of pleasure, but not physical, hedonistic pleasure; friendship and peace of mind.
Stoicism and the meaning of stoic Happiness could only be found by living in harmony with divine will; acceptance of what one receives in life; Stoic means being able to bear whatever life throws at you.
Created by: jdj022487