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Nervous System

True/False: Overview of the nervous system

True/FalseAnswer
The 4th ventricle lies anterior to the cerebellum and posterior to the pons. True, the 4th ventricle lies anterior to the cerebellum and posterior to the pons.
The calcarine sulcus is found in the frontal lobe. False, the calcarine sulcus is found in the occipital lobe.
The corpus callosum connects the two cerebral hemispheres. True, the two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum.
The amygdala is a frontal lobe structure. False, the amygdala is a temporal lobe structure.
The vermis of the cerebellum is a midline structure. True, the vermis of the cerebellum is a midline structure.
The vertebral arteries supply the medulla, pons and cerebellum. True, the vertebral arteries join to form the basilar artery. Branches of both supply the medulla, pons and cerebellum.
The anterior cerebral artery supplies the medial surface of the brain. True, the anterior cerebral arteries project forwards on either side of the longitudinal fissure, supplying the medial surfaces of each cerebral hemisphere.
The middle cerebral artery supplies the majority of the surface of the brain. True, the middle cerebral artery also supplies parts of the basal ganglia.
The occipital and temporal lobes are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries. True, the occipital and temporal lobes are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries.
The circle of Willis forms and anastomosis between the basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries. True, the anterior and posterior communicating arteries connect the basilar artery to the internal carotid arteries, forming the circle of Willis.
Deoxygenated blood drains from the cortex into the superior sagittal sinus. True, the superior sagittal sinus runs in the longitudinal fissure, itself draining into the transverse sinus.
Venous blood from the cerebellum drains into the cavernous sinus. False, venous blood from olfactory, optic and certain facial structures drains into the cavernous sinus.
Cranial nerve II passes through the cavernous sinus. False, cranial nerves III, IV, VI and the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of V are found in the cavernous sinus - not cranial nerve II.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis can cause a palsy of cranial nerve III. True, infection in the face or orbit can spread causing cavernous sinus thrombosis. This causes a red swollen eye and palsies of the nerves running through the sinus.
Together, the straight and transverse sinuses drain into the internal jugular vein. True, together the straight and transverse sinuses drain into the internal jugular vein.
Development of the nervous system begins at 12 weeks gestation. False, development of the nervous system begins early, at 3 weeks gestation.
The entire nervous system is derived from mesoderm. False, the nervous system and skin are derived from ectoderm.
Ectoderm becomes muscles, connective tissues and blood vessels. False, mesoderm becomes muscles, connective tissues and blood vessels.
The neural plate thickens and folds to form the neural groove at 22 weeks gestation. True, the neural plate thickens and folds to form the neural groove at 22 weeks gestation.
Failure of the cranial neuropore to close results in anencephaly. True, in anencephaly, the embryo continues to develop but the brain does not. This usually results in spontaneous abortion.
Oligodendrocytes provide myelin insulation to neurons in the peripheral nervous system. False, oligodendrocytes myelinate neurons in the central nervous system. Schwann cells myelinate neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
One oligodendrocyte can myelinate just one axon. False, each oligodendrocyte can myelinate many axons.
Astrocytes can act as phagocytes and play a role in scar formation. True, astrocytes provide a scaffold for the surrounding neurons, reducing signal interference, taking up excess neurotransmitters and storing glycogen for use in times of high metabolic demand. They play a role in scar formation and can act as phagoctes.
Choroidal epithelial cells produce and secrete cerebrospinal fluid. True, cerebrospinal fluid is produced and secreted by choroidal epithelial cells.
Microglial cells are derived from macrophages within the central nervous system. False, microglia are derived from macrophages outside the nervous system. In response to tissue damage or inflammation they multiply and act as phagocytes.
CSF merely serves to provide a cushion to the CNS, preventing damage to nervous tissue by surrounding bony structures. False, CSF is also involved in providing nutrition to the central nervous system and removing waste products.
CSF is formed at a rate of approximately 50ml/day. False, CSF is produced at a rate of 500ml/day.
The total cerebrospinal fluid space is approximately 150ml. True, this volume must be turned over approximately 3 times per day.
CSF is normally more acidic than plasma. True, normal CSF pH = 7.33, whereas normal plasma pH = 7.41.
CSF goes back into the circulation at the Virchow-Robin space. False, CSF reaches nervous tissue by travelling along blood vessels in the perivascular (Virchow-Robin) space. CSF goes back into the circulation via the arachnoid granulations and perineural lymph vessels of the cranial and spinal nerves.
Created by: sallyelphick
 

 



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