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WORLD HISTORY

Final Review Quarter 2

QuestionAnswer
1. Explain the 5 pillars of Islam Declaration of faith-belief in Allah Prayer-pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Charity-give alms to the poor Fasting-fast during Ramadan Pilgrimage-journey to Mecca
2. Who was Muhammad? How did he become the prophet? He was the prophet of Islam. Gabriel gave him the message from God.
3. What was Muhammad’s social justice message? Charity and equality
4. What is the Quran? What is Sharia? Quran-The holy book of Islam Sharia-law code based on the Quran
5. What does a Sunni believe? What does a Shiite (Shia) believe? The split occurs over who should be the caliph/leader of Islam. Sunni believe only descendants of the Umayyad can lead and Shitte believes that only a direct descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali can be the caliph.
5a. How and why does the split in Islam occur? The split occurred when Hussein, the second son in law of Ali led a revolt against the Umayyad
6. Explain the Islamic Caliphate. IT was the empire under the control of the caliph. The caliph is the religious and political leader of the empire. Abu Bakr united the various Arab tribes through fighting and by spreading Islam.
7. Describe features of the Umayyad dynasty. What was its capital? Umayyad saw great expansion. They conquered Spain, North Africa and Persia. The empire was influenced by Persian and Byzantine cultures. Its capital was Damascus.
8. Describe the tax system used by the Umayyads. Non-Muslims were taxed
9. Describe features of the Abbasid Dynasty. What was its capital? Abbasid was a golden age. Baghdad was the capital and it was a center of learning. Trade thrived as well. The rulers broke down distinctions between Arab and non-Arab, allowing non-Arabs to hold public office and for cultural diversity to grow.
10. Describe the Abbasid Golden Age. Goods from all over the world were traded in the empire. Mosques, fountains and palaces were built. Many advancements in art and science occurred.
11. How did trade shape the Arab empires? Describe the routes and goods traded. Originally Arab nomads were very reliable traders connecting the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. They moved in camel caravans across the desert and provided a trade route that was not disrupted by warfare in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
12. Who were the Bedouin? Semi-nomadic groups in the desert who traded with Arabs
13. Who were the Christian and Muslim leaders during the Crusades? Richard the Lionheart of England led the Christians and Saladin of Egypt led the Muslims. Both were well respected by their enemy.
14. Who called the first Crusade? Why? Pope Urban II. The Byzantine emperor called him to help defend the empire from the Seljuk Turks.
14a. What other motives for the Crusades existed? The passage of Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem had been halted. Urban II wanted to re-unify the 2 churches (Catholic and Orthodox) as well as fight Muslim invaders in Spain and elsewhere in Europe.
15. What were some advancements and achievements from the Arab Empires? It was the Golden Age for Islam. Innovations were made in astronomy, math, medicine, and art, including arabesque designs.
16. How did Genghis Khan unify his empire? Through diplomacy and force. He fought tribes and killed their leaders, then allowed others to rise through the ranks based on their merits
17. What system of fighting did the Mongols use? Excellent horseback riders, which made them fast. They used other tactics like the Parthian shot, smoke signals to communicate on the battle field and employed spies. They were very brutal to those who resisted & would destroy entire villages.
18. What were the outcomes/results of the Mongol empire (positive and negative)? Part 1 Many people were killed by the Mongols, est. 40 million. However, once the fighting was over, the Mongols empire connected people and culture across Eurasia, they build and secured many roads and bridges which increased trade,
18a. What were the outcomes/results of the Mongol empire (positive and negative)? Part 2 They developed a postal system, they brough great thinkers from all over the empire to the places where they could do the most good/spread of technology and they allowed for religious tolerance
19. What was life like under Mongol rule for those who surrendered? For those who resisted? See previous question about Mongol Empire... If you resisted you died, otherwise you could benefit from the changes that came
20. What were some advancements from the Sui Dynasty? The Tang? The Song? Sui: The finishing of the Grand Canal, the re-unification of China after the fall of the Han Tang: gun-powder, movable type, porcelain Song: compass, creation of merchant guilds
21. Who was the ruler of the Yuan Dynasty? Kublai Khan
22. How did laws change to benefit Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty? Be specific.
23. Describe Neo-Confucianism. Why did it develop?
24. Describe the spread and influence of Buddhism at this time.
25. Describe the geography of Japan. How did it influence the development of its society? Japan was a mountainous island, which meant there was little land available to farm. As an island they were also isolated so they developed a unique and distinct culture
26. Who united Japan? How did he do this?
27. Describe the societal roles from feudal Japan. What were their duties?
28. Describe the beliefs of Shinto. Spirits called Kami inhabit many things, spirits of ancestors are also all around. The emperor and Japan are sacred. Shrines are built and people will pray and leave offerings at them.
29. Who created/implemented the Shogunate? Why?
30. Describe the three kingdoms of Korea.
31. Describe the beliefs of Zen Buddhism Enlightenment can be achieved through much meditation or for some, instantly.
32. What is the difference between matrilineal and patrilineal? Matrilineal means lineage is traced through the mother’s line Patrilineal means lineage is traced through the father’s line This influences who lives with what side of the family and who inherits property
33. Describe how history was passed down to generations in medieval Africa. The griot was a revered storyteller who used stories, music and dance to tell the history of his people
34. Describe the beliefs of medieval African religion Traditional African religion believed in one main god as well as spirits
35. Who were Griots? The griot was a revered storyteller who used stories, music and dance to tell the history of his people
36. How did the geography of Africa influence the development of kingdoms? Part 1 West Africa(Ghana/Mali/Songhai): Farming villages developed along the Niger river, which put them in between the salt in the Sahara & the Gold in south. These commodities were in high demand & trade routes developed. Kingdoms taxed the trade & became...
36a. How did the geography of Africa influence the development of kingdoms? Part 2 ...extremely wealthy&powerful. Swahili Coast: On the coast of the Indian Ocean allowed them easy access to trade with Muslim empires. The culture and religion of Islam influenced these states. A language of Bantu and Arabic developed called Swahili
37. Describe the impact the Bantu migration had on Africa? The Bantu migrated throughout all of Sub-Saharan Africa. They brought with them their skills (farming/iron work) their culture and most importantly their language
38. Who were the Berbers? Why were they important to the development of African kingdoms? Nomads in the Sahara desert who connected West Africa with the wider world. They would bring items for trade from Muslim traders as well as spread the Islamic faith
39. How did the kingdom of Ghana become so wealthy? It was located near gold as well as it taxed the salt for gold trade routes that ran throughout the kingdom
40. Describe the kingdom of Mali. What was it known for? Mali became very wealthy due to the salt for gold trade. One important ruler, Mansa Musa, institutionalized Islam by creating a justice system based on the Quran and building a large Islamic University in Timbuktu. It became a center of learning
41. Who was the founder of Mali? Who was Mansa Musa? Sundiata was the founder. One important ruler, Mansa Musa, institutionalized Islam by creating a justice system based on the Quran and building a large Islamic University in Timbuktu. It became a center of learning.
42. What was significant about Songhai? Who were some of the important leaders? It was the largest of kingdom in Africa. Sunni Ali helped expand its borders
43. How did Islam impact Africa? How did it spread to Africa? Traders brought Islam to Africa and its impact is that many Africans converted as well as learned to read and write in Arabic
44. Explain and describe various trade routes in Africa. How were items traded and what were the routes? Part 1 West Africa(Ghana/Mali/Songhai): Farming villages developed along the Niger river, which put them in between the salt in the Sahara & the Gold in south. These commodities were in high demand & trade routes developed. Kingdoms taxed the trade & became...
44a. Explain and describe various trade routes in Africa. How were items traded and what were the routes? Part 2 ...extremely wealthy&powerful. Swahili Coast: On the coast of the Indian Ocean allowed them easy access to trade with Muslim empires. The culture and religion of Islam influenced these states. A language of Bantu and Arabic developed called Swahili
45. What is Swahili? Why was the development of Swahili important? Swahili Coast: On the coast of the Indian Ocean allowed them easy access to trade with Muslim empires. The culture and religion of Islam influenced these states. A language of Bantu and Arabic developed called Swahili
46. Explain the importance of the Gold and Salt trade on the development of these kingdoms. Part 1 West Africa(Ghana/Mali/Songhai): Farming villages developed along the Niger river, which put them in between the salt in the Sahara & the Gold in south. These commodities were in high demand & trade routes developed. Kingdoms taxed the trade & became...
46a. Explain the importance of the Gold and Salt trade on the development of these kingdoms. Part 2 ...extremely wealthy&powerful. Swahili Coast: On the coast of the Indian Ocean allowed them easy access to trade with Muslim empires. The culture and religion of Islam influenced these states. A language of Bantu and Arabic developed called Swahili
47. Define the land bridge theory. 10,000 years ago people on the Eurasian continent crossed over to North America using a land bridge
48. Who was the “Mother Culture” of Mesoamerica? The Olmec
49. What type of government did the Maya have? What was the social structure like? The Maya was organized into independent city-states. Each city-state had a ruler on the top of the pyramid, priests and nobles were next, merchants and artisans and peasants were on the bottom.
50. What kind of government did the Aztec have? The Aztecs had an empire and were ruled by an emperor
50a. What was the Aztec social structure like? Priests and nobles were next, merchants and artisans and peasants were on the bottom. The Aztec conquered other groups and ruled over them. They collected tribute from the conquered people and used the prisoners of war for sacrifices.
51. What kind of government did the Inca have? What was the social structure like? The Inca had an emperor, priests and nobles were next, merchants and artisans and peasants were on the bottom. It was an empire
52. Describe an example of human sacrifice from the Maya, Aztec and Inca. Part 1 Maya-ball game, losers were decapitated-done on special occasions or for special circumstances Aztec-in order to ensure the sun would rise everyday blood must be sacrificed to the gods.
52a. Describe an example of human sacrifice from the Maya, Aztec and Inca. Part 2 Many sacrifices included a person’s heart being cut out Inca-one sacrifice was taking a perfect child and bringing him or her to top of the mountain to be left of die of exposure
53. What did the Aztec do to conquered people? What did the Inca? Aztec: collected tribute/used as sacrifices
54. What were some advancements of the Maya? The Aztec? The Inca? Maya: accurate 365 day calendar, concept of zero Aztec: engineering chinampas, causeways, dikes and aqueducts-emperor’s hot tub Inca: miles of road and suspension bridges, stones cut with the utmost precision to build temples, Machu Picchu
55. How did the Inca keep records? What was required of all Inca citizens? Quipu-knotted strings all citizens Inca or not must pay a labor tax
56. Who introduced metal-working to the Americas? Toltec in Mesoamerica
57. Describe the features of Aztec religion. What did they believe? They believe they must make sacrifices to the gods to ensure the sun will rise. They were polytheistic. Gods were connected to natural phenomenon like rain, crops, etc.
58. Describe the agricultural practices of the Maya, the Aztec and the Inca. Maya: slash and burn in the rain forest Aztec: chinampas-floating gardens Inca: terraces in the side of the mountain
59. Where were the Maya located? Where were the Aztec located? Where were the Inca located? Maya: Yucatan peninsula Aztec: Central Mexico/ modern day Mexico City Inca: Andes Mts. Peru and Chile
60. What does Renaissance mean and where did it begin? “rebirth” Italy
61. Describe the world-view/philosophy of the Renaissance. Humanism-human potential is important and should be valued
62. Explain and describe new techniques used in art. What were artists attempting to achieve with these new techniques? Perspective-made flat paintings appear 3D Realism- using shading to create drapery in fabrics, drawing musculature and emotion on people. Artists wanted to make their art look realistic and center on idealized versions of humans
63. What was Humanism? Humanism-human potential is important and should be valued
64. What did Humanists teach?
65. How did the Italian city-states influence the politics of the time?
65a. How did the Italian city-states become wealthy? They became very wealthy because of trade
66. Who were some of the influential political families in Italy? Which city-states did they control?
67. What does Niccolo Machiavelli believe about government? Explain the ideas from his writing The Prince.
68. What is a Renaissance man/woman? What were some qualities of each?
69. Describe the selling of indulgences? Why did this occur? Who benefitted from it? Who criticized it?
70. Who was Martin Luther? What were the 95 Theses? What was his impact on the Catholic Church?
71. Who were the Anabaptists? Describe their beliefs?
72. How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?
73. Describe what the Christian humanists believed.
Created by: PLHSWorld1