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Ancient Greece

Social Studies Chapter 10 Sections 3 & 4 Quiz

TermDefinition
Oligarchy Form of government in which a few people have the ruling power setup by the Athenian nobles, merchants, & manufacturers in 750 B.C.
Reforms Changes in the government.
Draco First noble to try to make changes (reforms) in Athens. His harsh punishments caused many to dislike and his reforms failed.
Solon 594 B.C. rich merchant who took over Athens -- created a constitution which broke power of the rich -- more Athenians could take part in government.
Constitution Set of principles and rules for governing.
Assembly Group that passed the laws and decided questions of war and peace in Athens.
Peisistratus Took over Athenian govern in 560 B.C. -- divided large estates among farmers who owned no land and stated you didn't have to own land to be a citizen in Athens.
Democratic Favoring the equality of all people.
Cleisthenes 508 B.C. -- Athenian noble who overthrew Spartan rule of Athens, he put into effect the world's first democratic constitution.
Magistrates Ten judges elected by the Assembly to run the Athenian army and navy; one of the ten was named commander-in-chief.
Council of Five Hundred Handled the daily business of Athens and ran the city-state -- selected by lot (all citizens had a chance).
Persians/Persian Empire Major force on the western side of Turkey -- ruled the largest and most powerful empire in the western world.
Ionia Greek city-states in Asia Minor and on the Aegean islands -- area conquered by the Persians.
Darius Persian king- wanted to punish mainland Greeks because they supported and came to aid of the Ionians.
Battle of Marathon Important win for Athens over Persians -- runner named Pheidippides ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to share the good new.
Triremes Greek warships with 3 levels of rowers on each side.
Xerses Darius's son and military leader in Persia -- wants revenge for his father's defeat against Greeks.
Thermopylae Often known as the battle of 300, it is at this battle that 300 Spartans along with 700 Greeks hold over the Persian army for three days while the people of Athens flee to safely.
Delian League Defensive league led by Athens and joined by other city-states-headquartered on the island of Delos -- formed after the Persian Wars to protect Greece from any other future Persian invasions -- Spartan never joined the league -- Delian League + Athenian E
Pericles General and leader of Athens after the Persian Wars -- known as the "first citizen" of Athens, he rebuilt Athens and made it a center of art, architecture, literature, philosophy and learning -- he built Parthenon, palaces, and temples on the acropolis.
Peloponnesian War 30 year war fought in the Peloponnesus between a group of city-states led by Sparta and Athens and its allies.
Mercenaries Hired soldiers
Created by: 17agordon