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Blood Vessels

Cardio vascular blood system

QuestionAnswer
What is the clue Phrase for the blood vessel structure section? "El Steve Vasa"'s collagen/nerve fibers
Clue phrase for Elastic conducting arteries? "LL'EC"
Clue phrase for muscular distributing arteries? "PI"
Clue phrase for arterioles? "BF'IF"
Clue phrase for contiuous capillaries "MEGI"
Clue phrase for fenestrated capillaries? "SS'PO'FO"
Clue phrase for sinosoidal capillaries? "HI-MOD'FAP"
Clue phrase for capillary bed section? "MTV"
M from MTV stands for? Micro-circulation
T from MTV stands for? True Capillaries
V from MTV stands for? Vascular Shunt
Another term for vascular shunt? Metarteriole thoroughfare channel
Capillary blood flow? Terminal arteriole > Metarteriole > Thoroughfare Channel > Postcapillary Venule
What is the pre-capillary sphincter? Located at root of metarteriole and capillary. Regulates blood flow to capillaries by opening and closing like a valve.
The 2 main vessels of the venous system? Veins and Venules
Clue phrase for venous system section? CA'VE'VA
CA from CA'VE'VA means what? Capacitance vessels
VE from CA"VE"VA means what? Venous valves
VA from CA'VE"VA means what? Vascular Anastomoses
The 3 types of anastamoses? arteriol,venous, and arteriovenous anastomoses
What is anastomoses? The joining of vascular channels
Example of arteriovenous anastomoses? Vascular shunt or metarteriole thoroughfare channel
Clue phrase for circulation section? "PFR" and ART'CA'VE
P from PFR means what? Blood pressure
F from PFR means what? Blood flow
R from PFR means what? Resistance
What contributes to peripheral resistance? Blood viscosity, vessel length, and vessel diamater
What does ART mean from ART'CA'VE Arterial pressure
Systemic pressure is highest where? Aorta
What is arterial blood pressure? how much the arteries close to the heart can be stretched (compliance, or distensibility), and the volume forced into them at a given time.
What is systolic pressure? the highest pressure of blood force in the aorta
What is diastolic pressure? The lowest pressure of blood force in the aorta
What is pulse pressure? diastolic pressure - systolic pressure = pulse pressure
What is MAP? represents the pressure that propels blood to the tissues. (Diasolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure) = MAP
Capillary blood pressure range? 20-40 mm Hg
Blood pressure varies directly with changes in what? blood volume and cardiac output, which are determined primarily by venous return and neural and hormonal controls.
What are the short-term regulation controls for falling and rising blood pressure? Neural and chemical controls
Examples of neural control regulators? Baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, vasomotor center and the hypothalamus via adrenal medulla
What is the clue phrase for the chemical control factor? EINAAAAA
Clue phrase for constrictor or dilator of chemicals? CDDCCDCD
Norepinephrine and epinephrine promote what? an increase in cardiac output and generalized vasoconstriction.
Antidiuretic hormone promotes what? vasoconstriction and water conservation by the kidneys, resulting in an increase in blood volume.
Angiotensin II acts as a what? vasoconstrictor, as well as promoting the release of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
Endothelium-derived factors promote what? vasoconstriction, and are released in response to low blood flow.
Nitric oxide is produced in response to what? high blood flow or other signaling molecules, and promotes systemic and localized vasodilation.
Name three chemical inflammatories. Histamine, prostacyclin, and Kinins
Alcohol inhibits what? antidiuretic hormone release and the vasomotor center, resulting in vasodilation.
What are the two long-term mechanisms of blood pressure regulation? direct and indirect renal mechanisms
The direct renal mechanism function is what? counteracts an increase in blood pressure by altering blood volume, which increases the rate of kidney filtration.
The indirect renal mechanism funtion is what? is the renin-angiotensin mechanism, which counteracts a decline in arterial blood pressure by causing systemic vasoconstriction.
How do you monitor circulatory efficiency? by measuring pulse and blood pressure; these values together with respiratory rate and body temperature are called vital signs.
How is a pulse generated? by the alternating stretch and recoil of elastic arteries during each cardiac cycle.
What is tissue perfusion? The delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells; gas exchange in the lungs; absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract; and urine formation in the kidneys.
Blood velocity is fastest where? The aorta
What is autoregulation? Like a (water pump station)the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its needs,(like houses) and is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles.
Name the 3 local autoregulation methods. Metabolic, Myogenic, and Long term aoutoregulation
Metabolic controls of autoregulation are most strongly stimulated by what? a shortage of oxygen at the tissues.
Myogenic control involves what? the localized response of vascular smooth muscle to passive stretch.
Long-term autoregulation develops over weeks or months, and involves what? an increase in the size of existing blood vessels and an increase in the number of vessels in a specific area, a process called angiogenesis.
Muscular autoregulation occurs almost entirely in response to what? decreased oxygen concentrations.
Cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated to meet what needs? neuronal needs, since neurons cannot tolerate periods of ischemia, and increased blood carbon dioxide causes marked vasodilation.
In the skin, local autoregulatory events control what? oxygen and nutrient delivery to the cells
Local autoregulatory using neural mechanisms control what? the body temperature regulation function
Autoregulatory controls of blood flow to the lungs are the opposite of what happens in most tissues:Explain. low pulmonary oxygen causes vasoconstriction, while higher oxygen causes vasodilation.
Movement of blood through the coronary circulation of the heart is influenced by what? aortic pressure and the pumping of the ventricles.
What is vasomotion? , the slow, intermittent flow of blood through the capillaries, reflects the action of the precapillary sphincters in response to local autoregulatory controls.
Capillary exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolic wastes occurs where? between the blood and interstitial space through diffusion.
What is hydrostatic pressure? (HP) is the force of a fluid against a membrane.
What is Colloid osmotic pressure (OP) the force opposing hydrostatic pressure, is created by the presence of large, nondiffusible molecules that are prevented from moving through the capillary membrane.
What is circulatory shock? is any condition in which blood volume is inadequate and cannot circulate normally, resulting in blood flow that cannot meet the needs of a tissue.
What is Hypovolemic shock? results from a large-scale loss of blood, and may be characterized by an elevated heart rate and intense vasoconstriction.
What is Vascular shock is characterized by a normal blood volume, but extreme vasodilation, often related to a loss of vasomotor tone, resulting in poor circulation and a rapid drop in blood pressure.
What is Transient vascular shock? due to prolonged exposure to heat, such as while sunbathing, resulting in vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels.
What is Cardiogenic shock? occurs when the heart is too inefficient to sustain normal blood flow, and is usually related to myocardial damage, such as repeated myocardial infarcts.
What are the two most distinct circulatory pathways? Pulmonary and Systemic Blood Circulation
Name the one terminal systemic artery. The Aorta
Name the two terminal systemic veins. The superior and inferior vena cava
Which vessels run deep and are well protected? Arteries
Which vessels run both deep and superficial in the skin? Veins
Which vessels have the most intersections and harder to follow? Veins
There are at least two areas where venous drainage does not parallel the arterial supply, what are they? : the dural sinuses draining the brain, and the hepatic portal system draining from the digestive organs to the liver before entering the main systemic circulation.
How many pair of arteries supply the head and neck? Four pair
The upper limbs are supplied entirely by what? arteries arising from the subclavian arteries.
The arterial supply to the abdomen arises from what? the aorta
The internal iliac arteries serve what? mostly the pelvic region
The external iliacs supply blood to what? the lower limb and abdominal wall.
What are the major tributaries of the venous circulation? The venae cavae
How many pair of veins collect blood drained from the head and neck? three pairs of veins
Do the deep veins of the upper limbs follow the paths of the companion arteries? True or False True
vascular endothelium is formed by what? mesodermal cells that collect throughout the embryo in blood islands, which give rise to extensions that form rudimentary vascular tubes.
The rudimentary heart and vessels are circulating blood in which week? By the fourth week of development
What are the three fetal vascular shunts? the foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus and the ductus venosus
When do the fetal shunts and bypasses close and become occluded? At birth
The incidence of vascular disease increases with age, leading to varicose veins, tingling in fingers and toes, and muscle cramping; True or False? True
When does Atherosclerosis begin? at youth, but rarely cause problems until old age
what is the normal arterial pressure of infants? is about 90/55
What is the normal arterial pressure during childhood? An average 120/80
What is the normal arterial pressure during old age? 150/90
R and L coronary arteries supply what? the myocardium
Brachiocephalic, common carotids, and subclavian Art. supply what? Head neck and upper limbs
External carotid Art. supply what? Head tissues
Internal Carotid Art. supply what? Orbits and cerebrum
Vertebral arter. supply what? supplies blood to the posterior part of circle of Willis
Basilar Arter. supply what? Cerebellum, pons, and inner ear
Auxillary arter. supply what? Axilla, chestwall, and shoulder girdle
Brachial arter. supply what? brachial muscles
Radial and Ulnar arter. supply what? forearm and wrist
Palmar arches arter. supply what? fingers
Thoracic aorta supplies what? thoracic wall and viscera
Intercostal arter. supply what? intercostal spaces anteriorly
Left gastric arter. supplies what? stomach, inferior esophagus
Splenic arter. supplies what? pancreas, stomach, and spleen
Common hepatic arter. supplies what? Liver
Suprarenal arter. supply what? Adrenal glands
Renal arter. supply what? Kidneys
Gonadal arter. supply what? testes and ovaries
Inferior mesenteric arter. supply what? distal part of large intestine
Common illiac arter. supply what? pelvic organs and lower abdominal wall
External illiac arter. supply what? lower limbs
Femoral arter. supply what? quads, hamstrings, and adductors
Popliteal arter. supply what? knee region
Anterior tibial arter. supply what? extensor muscles
Anterior tibial vein drains what? drain the deep veins of the ankle and dorsum of the foot.
Popliteal vein drains what? knee
Femoral vein drains what? deep structures of thigh
Great sephanous vein drains what? drains the dorsal venous arch. ( longets vein in body )
External Iliac vein drains what? the femoral vein
Common Iliac vein drains what? pelvis and lower leg
Inferior vena cava? receives systemic blood below diaphragm
Gonadal veins drain what? testes or ovaries
Renal veins drain what? kidneys
Suprarenal veins drain what? Adrenal glands
Inferior mesenteric vein drain what? large intestine and rectum
Splenic vein drains what? spleen, stomach, and pancreas
Superior mesenteric vein drains what? small intestine
Hepatic portal vein drains what? Superior, inferior, mesenteric and Splenic veins
Hepatic veins drain what? liver
Palmar arches drain what? hands
Ulnar vein drain what? run alongside the unlar artery and drain the palmar arches.
Brachial vein drain what? travel with the brachial artery and drain the radial and ulnar veins.
Axillary vein drains what? upper limb
Subclavian veins drain what? head neck and upper limbs
External jugular veins drain what? superficial head and neck
Vertebral veins drain what? deep muscles of the upper part of the back of the neck
Internal jugular drain what? dural sinusus of brain
Brachiocephalic veins drain what? side of head and upper limbs
Superior vena cava drains what? receives sytemic blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm
Superior mesenteric artery supplies what? supplies most of the small intestine, part of the pancreas and part of the large intestine.
Created by: martinandmary