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By: Jennifer Gash, Daniel Koudsi, Anna Sziklai

Simon Bolivar Venezuelan soldier who led revolutions against Spanish rule in Latin America. President of Gran Colombia (1819-30) and dictator of Peru (1823-26). Wrote "Manifesto of Cartegena" and "Letter from Jamaica." Liberated Venezuela from Spanish rule.
Peninsulares Men who were born in Spain that could high office in Spanish government who lived in the New World.
Creoles A white person born in Spanish America of Spanish parents
Mestizos A person of mixed race. In Central and South America, it usually denotes a person of combined Native American and European descent.
Mulattos In the Americas, a person of mixed race, usually with parents of European and African origin.
Antonio Jose de Sucre Aided Simon Bolivar and the rebels in demolishing Spanish control of Venezuela.
Haciendas Feudal-like estates that were controlled by people or families that were giving shelter to dependent workers. Owners called haciendados.
Venezuelan response to Enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality The Haciendados wanted freedom to sell their cocoa and coffee
Spanish response to Enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality Wanted to preserve Venezuela's social hierarchy and society
What did Bolivar promise the slaves if they fought alongside him? Emancipation
Who are four significant people that helped the Venezuelan's reach independence? Francisco de Miranda (led initial movement), Simon Bolivar (The Liberator), José Tomás Boves (llaneros crushing resistance), and José Antonio de Paez.
Francisco de Miranda Creole who led the initial expedition to Santa Ana de Coro (city in Venezuela) to gain independence in 1806, but he was resisted. He was convinced by Simon Bolivar to return in 1810, where he led a junta in power in 1811 and fell from power in 1812.
Junta Spanish word for legislative council
Llaneros Venezuelan or Colombian herders. Name taken from the Llanos grasslands in western Venezuela and eastern Colombia.
José Tomás Boves Leader of the Llaneros who crushed resistance to the crown in 1814, promising social equality. He became ruler but did not give social equality.
José Atonio Paez A mestizo who realized Boves wouldn't grant social equality. Allied with Bolivar from 18160-1820, later becoming president and developing social and economic infrastructure. Organized the country's secession from Gran Colombia.
Gran Colombia The state that included a lot of northern South America and some of Southern Central America from 1819-1831
Created by: jennifergash