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medical history

principles of Health Science ch 1 and 2

Ancient Times Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits and demons
Ancient Egyptians Earliest people to maintain health records
Ancient Egyptians Mummified corpses showed signs of arthritis, kidney stones and arteriosclerosis
Ancient Chinese Treat whole body by cursing spirits and nourishing the body; recorded herbal medications; used acupuncture to treat pain
Ancient Greeks Illness was result of natural causes; believed in disease prevention; studied effects of disease and the human body
Hippocrates "Father of Medicine"
Hippocrates Organized disease by signs and symptoms
Hippocrates Created high standards of ethics used by physicians (Hippocratic Oath)
Sign Objective patient observation
Symptom Subjective patient observation
Sign Fever
Symptom Pain
Sign Swollen ankle
Symptom Nausea
Ancient Romans Established hospitals (for injured soldiers)
Ancient Romans Developed public sanitation systems (aqueducts for clean water, sewers for waste)
Dark Ages Emphasis on saving soul and study of medicine prohibited
Middle Ages Bubonic plague killed 75% of population in Europe and Asia
Renaissance The rebirth of science & medicine; dissection of the human body began
Leonardo DaVinci & Michelangelo During the Reaissance, studied corpses and drew the human body more realistically
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope
Ambroise Pare Father of modern Surgery
Ambroise Pare Used ligatures to bind arteries to stop bleeding
Rene Laennec Invented the stethoscope
Florence Nightingale Founder of modern nursing
Florence Nightingale Start nursing schools
Ignaz Semmelweiss Encouraged hand-washing
Louis Pasteur Discovered that microorganisms cause disease and how to kill them (pasteurization of milk)
Joseph Lister First doctor to use antiseptic during surgery
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin
Crick and Watson Described DNA structure
Cost containment Control costs while achieving maximum benefits
Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) Classifying patients with certain disease in one payment group
DRG Diagnostic Related Group
Hopsital Provides INPATIENT care.
Hospitals are classified by funding; list the four funding types. 1) Proprietary/for profit 2) nonprofit 3) government 4) Religious
Hospitals are classified by services; list the two service types. 1) General 2) Specialty
Long-term healthcare facility Provides care for elderly, people with physical or mental disabilities and people with chronic or long-term illness.
Nursing home For live-in patients who no longer can care for themselves
Emergency Care Provide special care for accidents or sudden illness (risk of losing life, limb or eye sight)
Medical Offices Provide diagnosis, treatment, examination, basic laboratory testing & minor surgery; usually operated by a group of group of physicans
Clinics Provide a variety of OUTPATIENT services
Medical Labs where diagnostic test are processed (usually blood or urine specimens)
Dental Labs where implants, dentures and other corrective devices for the mouth are made
Home Health Care Provide care to patients who are terminally ill
Palliative Care Comfort care for the terminally ill
Mental Health Provide care of patients who have mental illness and disorders
List 4 types of Mental Health Services 1) Counseling 2) Psychiatric 3) Chemical abuse 4) Phsycial abuse
Genetic Counseling Centers Provide testing & counseling to individuals or couples who are pregnant or considering pregnancy
Rehabilitation Provide services to help patients with physical or mental disabilities develop maximum ability for self-care
List 3 examples of rehabilitative therapy 1) Physical therapy 2) Occupational therapy 3) Speech therapy
Industrial Health Centers Onsite clinic within a large industry or employer that provides basic exams, accident/illness prevention and wellness programs
School Health Services Provide health screenings, health education, and emergency care to students and staff, along with recommendations for a safe/sanitary school environment
Local Health Departments provide immunizations, inspections for health and sanitation, statistics and records, health education or clinics
Preventing Illness Most effective cost containment strategy; prevent illnesses from occurring.
Outpatient Services Cost containment strategy; provide as much patient care in the clinics (outpatients) vs. in hospitals (inpatients) that spend a night)
Mass/Bulk Purchasing Cost containment strategy that purchases things in large quantity to save money
Combination of services Cost containment strategy that saves money by offering similar services in on location (eg: pharmacy, radiology or labs)
Preventing illness Save healthcare costs by keeping patients well by living a healthy lifestyle
Complementary and Alternative Methods (CAM) Non-traditional medical therapies; they DO NOT have an evidence-based of science showing they are effective and safe.
CAM Complimentary and Alternative Methods
Complementary Medicine Used WITH traditional therapies
Alternative Medicine Used INSTEAD of traditional therapies
Integrative Care Healthcare providers use both traditional and CAM therapies
CRAAP An acronym to help assess credibility of health information.
CRAAP Currency. Relevance, Authority, Acceptance, Purpose
Health Literacy Understanding health information and knowing how to use the information to stay healthy and access the healthcare system.
Poor health literacy Have poorer health outcomes, more hospitalizations and cost the healthcare system more money.
Currency When was the information published (or last reviewed/edited).
Relevance Is the information related to and in-depth enough on your topic?
Authority Was the health information written or reviewed by a healthcare professional?
Accuracy Was the information based on facts? Were cites referenced or was there a bibliography?
Purpose Who funds the publication (website)? What is the purpose of the website?
Hospice care Provides pallative care for terminally ill patients
Genetic Counseling provide genetic disease testing to pregnant couples
World Health Organization (WHO) compiles statistics on disease; investigates serious health problems across the world
Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulates food and drug products sold to the public
Occupational Safety and Health administration (OSHA) A federal agency that establishes and enforces standard that protect workers from job-related injuries and illness
National Institute of Health (NIH) National organization that is involved in the research of disease
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National organization that researches causes, spread and control of disease
Managed Care offer services through a system of providers at reduced rates
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) focuses on prevention; patient MUST have Primary Care Physician (PCP) referral to see a specialist and all non-emergent care MUST be pre-approved
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Focuses on clients' preferences; a Primary Care Physician (PCP) referral IS NOT required
Medicaid State-administered medical assistance program for low-income individuals/families
Medicare Nationally administered medical assistance program for citizens age 65 or older
Medigap Health insurance policy that helps pay for expenses not covered by Medicare
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Low cost health insurance to uninsured children of families who do not qualify for Medicaid
TRICARE Insurance for active duty and retired military and their families/survivors
Worker's Compensation Provides treatment for workers injured on the job with payments made by employers and the state for healthcare costs and lost wages
Network or In-Network Contracted healthcare providers, facilities and suppliers by your insurance company.
Out-of-Network A healthcare provider, facility or supplier that is NOT on the contract with your insurance company. It will cost more to use out-of-network healthcare services.
Deductible The amount you pay for healthcare services BEFORE your health insurance plan starts to pay for the healthcare services.
Co-insurance A percentage your insurance and you agree to pay for healthcare services (80/20 - 80% paid by health insurance and 20% by you).
Co-payment (Or Co-pay) Usually a set amount. The amount you have agreed with your insurance company to pay for healthcare services.
Premium Amount you pay to purchase your health insurance
Out-of-pocket maximum The maximum amount of money you will pay during a policy period for healthcare services. After this is reached, your health insurance will pay 100%.
Preauthorization Except in an emergency, your health insurance must approve healthcare services PRIOR to them being provided.
Preventative Services Screenings, counseling and routine check-ups that help prevent disease or provide early detection and treatment for disease.
Primary Care Physician (PCP) The doctor you see first for your healthcare. In an HMO type insurance plan, they must see you first before referring you to a specialist for care.
Specialist A physician with advanced training in a focus area, such as cardiology, neurology, nephrology etc.
Referral A consult request from your PCP to a specialist.
Affordable Care Act Law implemented in Mar 2010 that increased access to affordable healthcare/insurance, increase patient Bill of Rights and increased coverage for preventative services.
Created by: cbiondillo



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