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Ancient Rome Part 2

QuestionAnswer
What were 3 problems the Republic faced in its later years? 1. Punic Wars - series of wars with Carthage (city in Northern Africa) 2. Power shifts towards the wealthy 3. Breakdown in checks and balances
Who was Cicero? Philosopher and public speaker
How did Cicero want to make Rome better? Wanted Romans to stop fighting; called on upper class Romans to work together; wanted to limit power of the generals; also wanted to restore checks and balances
Who was Julius Caesar? Powerful general in the Roman Army
What was Julius Caesar's greatest accomplishment as general? 56-50 B.C. - Conquered Gaul (Modern-day France)
What happened in 50 B.C.? Pompey's allies in the Senate ordered Caesar to give up command of the Senate
What does "Crossing the Rubicon" mean? 1. Point of no return 2. An action once done, cannot be undone
What happened in 45 B.C.? Caesar returns to Rome and names himself dictator for life
What event took place on March 15, 44 B.C.? "Ides of March" - Caesar is stabbed to death on the floor of the Roman Senate
What 2 leaders emerged from the death of Caesar? Marc Antony - Caesar's former assistant Octavian - Caesar's adopted son
Princeps "First citizen"
What was the name the Senate gave Octavian? What does it mean? Augustus - "Revered one"
Why is the naming of Octavian important? Modern historians consider the naming of Augustus to mark the end of the Roman Republic and beginning of the Roman Empire
Describe the size of the Roman Empire in the 100s A.D. Empire stretched from Britain to Egypt, and Atlantic Ocean to Syrian Desert
Why did some emperors give up land? They feared the empire would be too big too defend.
What were two external threats to the Empire? 1. Germanic warriors threatened the northern borders 2. Persian armies invaded from the east
What were three internal problems of the Empire? 1. Raids from tribes forced people to move from the borders 2. Disease swept through the empire, killing many people 3. Government increased taxes to pay for defense
Describe how Diocletian affected the Empire. Was convinced the empire was too big for one person to rule; Split the empire in half; Ruled the eastern half; Named a co-emperor in western half
What did Constantine do to the Empire? Reunited the empire for a short time; Moved the capital of the empire to modern-day Turkey; Built a new capital city - Constantinople, which means "City of Constantine"
How did Constantine's actions affect Rome? Rome was no longer the center of the empire; Rome lost all of its power
What actions contributed to the beginning of the end of the Empire? 1. Huns (from Central Asia) defeated the Goths, which forced the Goths into Roman territory 2. Romans force the Goths west, where the Goths sack (attack and defeat) Rome in 410 A.D. 3. Gothic victory in Rome causes other groups to attack empire
Describe three factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire. 1. Vast size; Communication among empire was difficult; empire too big to govern effectively 2. Political Crises; Corrupt officials ignored needs of Rome and citizens 3. The Wealthy; Formed armies to protect selves; Overthrew leaders for own power
Why did Romans take a practical approach to science? Wanted results that benefited society
What were two examples of the Romans' practical approach? 1. Studied stars to produce a calendar 2. Studied plants and animals to learn how to obtain better crops and meat
Who was Galen? Greek surgeon
What did Galen do? Studied the heart; described valves and noted the differences between veins and arteries
What is cement? Mixture of lime, volcanic rock, and ash; the resulting material was very hard and watertight
Describe Roman roads. Roads were built in layers; each layer had a different material; the layered construction made roads highly durable
What are arches? A rounded shape that can hold more weight
How were arches used? Strength of the design of arches has allowed many Roman bridges to last until present day
What are aqueducts? Raised channels used to carry water from mountains into cities
What are vaults? A set of arches that support the roofs of buildings
How were vaults used? Romans were able to create huge, open areas within buildings
What is Latin? The language of government and law in Ancient Rome; People wrote, conducted business, and kept records in Latin
What are Romance Languages? Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian; all developed from Latin
Created by: NYongue