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WorldHistory Midterm

Information from marking periods 1 and 2.

Hierarchy Any system of persons or things ranked one above another.
Motive A reason that causes a person to act in a certain way, do a certain thing, ext.(i.e. incentive)
Missionary A person sent by a church into an area to spread that religion or to do other activities, as educational or hospital work.
Colony A weaker area that is controlled by a stronger nation.
Middle Passage Ship voyage of African slaves to the New World.
Mercantilism Raw materials go from the colony to their mother country. The mother country then gives manufactured goods to the colony.
Cultural Diffusion The movement of goods, people, ideas, customs, traditions, disease, from one place to another.
Circumnavigate To sail or fly around; make the circuit of by navigation; to circus-navigate the Earth.
Bias Favoring one thing over another; prejudiced viewpoint
Cultural Perspective The way in which a specific society, country, tribe, or ethnicity may view something.
Ethnocentrism The belief that your culture is superior to another culture.
Civilization An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.
Dynasty A sequence of rules from the same family, stock, or group. (i.e. the Ming dynasty.)
Polytheism The belief in more than one God.
Philosophy A particular system of thought.
Bubonic Plague A serious, sometimes fatal, infection with the bacterial toxic yelsinia petis. Transmitted by fleas in rodents that causes high fevers and buboes.
Silk Road The way the plague was spread. An ancient network of trade and culture transitions routes that were centers to cultural interaction. In Asia, connecting west and east by merchants, pilgrims, monks, and soldiers from China and India.
Flagellants A person who whips himself and others as part of a religious penance. Christians during the Black Death who thought if they whip themselves, it would stop the plague.
Monotheism The belief that their is only one God.
Extremists People who blamed their problems on God. A person who holds extreme or fanatical political or religious views, especially one who results to or advocates extreme action.
Sect A group of people with somewhat different religious beliefs (typically regarded as heretical) from those of a larger group to which they belong in.
Ecclesiastics Of or relating to the Christian Church or its clergy.
Serfs An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lords estate.
Immunity The ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.
Diffusion The spreading of something more widely. (i.e. the spread of the plague)
Quarantine Where people were put if it was believed that they had the plague. A state, period, or place of isolation in which people or animals that have arrived from elsewhere or have been exposed to infectious disease are placed.
Standard of Living The degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community. Many peasants have improved living,
Primary Source Item created during the time period.
Secondary Source Item created after the time period.
Frame of Reference Factors that influence a persons viewpoint. (i.e. religion, race, gender, economic status, media, time period lived, friends, family.)
Fact Something that can be proven true.
Interpretation How someone sees that fact.
Document Anything written or printed that provides fact or information.
Document Based Question (DBQ) A question that is about one or more of those written or printed source materials.
Scaffolding Question A question that asks for a specific piece of information from a document.
Essay Question Requires a response containing one or more paragraph.
Thesis Statement A single sentence that answers the essay in a general way.
Support Provide evidence to back up or prove your main idea.
Analyze Break something into parts, describe the parts, and show how the parts are related to one another.
Compare Tell about the similarities between two things.
Contrast Tells about the differences between two things.
Describe Tells about something in detail.
Interpret Explain or describe the meaning of significance of something.
Renaissance The time of transition from Medieval times to modern world. A time of great political, social, economical, & cultural change with a shift from agricultural life to more urban settings. Also placed emphasis on individual achievement & learning.
Humanism An intellectual movement. Humanists studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome, but used that study to increase their understanding of their own era.
Patron Financial supporter of the arts during the Italian Renaissance.
Perspective Artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a three-dimensional effect.
What does Renaissance mean in French? Rebirth
What was the time period of the Renaissance? 1300's-1500's.
Realism 19th century artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is.
Vernacular Everyday language of ordinary people.
Protestant Reformation A movement of a religious upheaval. Northern European calls for church reform.
Indulgences A lessoning of the time a soul would have to spend in the purgatory, only granted for good deeds.
95 Theses 95 arguments against indulgences, posted on Wittenburg's All Saints Church.
Doctrine Practice; teaching.
Catholic Counter Reformation Vigorous reform movement. Revived the moral authority of the church and roll back the protestant tide.
Nicolaus Copernicus Published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. In it, he proposed the idea of heliocentrism.
Heliocentric The belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
Tycho Brahe A Danish astronomer who provided evidence that supported Copernicus' theory.
Johannes Kepler German astronomer and mathematician, who then used Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the Sun. This proved Copernicus' heliocentric theory true, but it also proved that the planets orbit in an oval shaped orbit.
Galileo Assembled an astronomical telescope. Discovered that the four moons of Jupiter slowly orbit, just as Earth does the Sun. This caused an uproar, as it goes against the Church's teachings. He was put under house arrest and threatened to be put to death.
Francis Bacon Both he and Descartes, writing in the 1600's, rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions. He stressed experimentation and observation. He wanted science to make life better for people by leading to practical technologies.
Rene Descartes Both he and Bacon, writing in the early 1600's, rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions. He emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding. He decided to discard all traditional authorities and search for provable knowledge.
Scientific Method A careful, step-by-step process used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
Ellipse Oval shaped orbit of the planets.
Hypothesis An unproved theory accepted for the purposes of explaining certain facts or to provide a basis for further investigation
Robert Boyle Refined the Alchemists' view of chemicals as basic building blocks. Explained all matter as being composed of tiny particles that behave in knowable ways. Distinguished between individual elements and compounds.
Isaac Newton Using mathematics, he showed that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun.
Gravity A force that pulls objects in Earth's sphere to the center of Earth.
Calculus A branch of mathematics in which calculations are made using special symbolic notations; developed by Isaac Newton.
Andreas Vesalius Published "On the Structure of the Human Body," the first accurate description of human anatomy. Preformed autopsies by himself.
Ambroise Pare French physician developed new ointment for preventing infection. Developed surgical techniques, introduced artificial limbs, and invented several scientific instruments.
Scientific Method Step 1 State the problem
Scientific Method Step 2 Gather information on the problem
Scientific Method Step 3 Form a hypothesis
Scientific Method Step 4 Experiment
Scientific Method Step 5 Collect, record, analyze data
Scientific Method Step 6 Form a conclusion
Scientific Method Step 7 Share data
Marco Polo From Italy, explored China. Traveled with father for trade and to share Western culture with the Chinese people. Wrote "The Travels" and brought 1st knowledge of the Far East back to Europe. Encouraged future explorers.
Francis Xavier From Spain, explored India and Japan. He wanted to spread Christianity. He set up schools to educate natives & peacefully spread Christianity.
Fernando Cortes From Spain, explored Cuba and Mexico. He defeated the Aztec empire and gained fame and wealth for Spain and for himself.
Francisco Pizzaro From Spain, explored the western coast of South America. Motive was fame and wealth. He defeated the Inca empire, gained wealth for Spain & himself, and even ruled the Inca empire for 10 years until he was killed by his own men.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa From Spain, explored Hispaniola. He explored for fame & wealth. He "found" the pacific ocean, found land, wealth, and goods for himself & Spain, and encouraged fellow Spaniards to settle in the Americas.
Bartolomue Diaz From Portugal, explored the Western coast of Africa. He wanted a water trade route to India. Mapped out the coast of Africa to the Indian Ocean and later allowed Portugal to gain control of the spice trade.
Created by: madisonshifflett