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chapter 6 Language
|A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication.
|technique using vocabulary of extinct language to recreate the language that proceeded the extinct language
|The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
|The variant of a language that a country’s political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life.
|Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary.
|in multilingual countries the language selected often by educated and politically powerful elite to promote internal cohesion. language of courts and government
|A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
|Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin.
|Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent.
|Hypothesis which holds that the indo European languages that arose from proto-indo European were first carried east into SW Asia, then to Caspian sea, across Russia Ukraine and into Balkans
|Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages -hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and North America through Asia and Australia
|a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest each other at any place in the chain are most closely related.
|slight change in a word across languages within a sub family or through a language family from the present backward towards its origin.
|language believed to be the ancestral language not only of proto-indo European, but also of kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic Altaic languages, the Dravidian languages of India, and the Afro Asiatic language family
|Hypothesis that states three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the fertile crescent gave rise to three language families: Europe's indo European , North Africa and Arabian languages, languages in present day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India
|The opposite of language convergence, a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolatio
|The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages; the opposite of language divergence.
|One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European ton
|Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
|Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
|Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago.
|A term deriving from “Frankish language” and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic. Today it refers to a “common language,” a language used among spe
|When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
|A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue.
|Countries in which only one language is spoken.
|Countries in which more than one language is spoken.
|The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade.
|The fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of location.