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Hum Geo Sem 1 Unit 3

Unit 3: Cultural Geography (Chpt 6 Language)

Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of society.
Standard language Variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, media and other aspects of public life.
Dialect Local or regional characteristics of a language. In addition to pronunciation variation has distinctive grammar and vocabulary
Isogloss A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Language A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Language convergence The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of people with different language; opposite of language divergence
Language divergence A process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher-new languages are formed when on breaks into dialects due to lack of spatial interaction among speakers. continued isolation causes division of language into new ones
Language family Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Lingua franca A term deriving from "Frankish language" meaning tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish and some Arabic. Today it refers to common language, used among speakers of different languages for trade or commerce
Sound shift Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward towards its origin
Proto-Indo-European (language) Hypothesis-existence of ancestral Indo-European language that is hearth of ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages; links modern lang from Scandinavia to N Africa and from N America through parts of Asia to Australia
Created by: CJoannou