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Foundations of theo

Important terms and passages

TermDefinition
“Let me be food for the wild beasts, through whom I can reach God. I am God’s wheat, and I am being ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I might prove to be pure bread. Better yet, coax the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb and leave..." St. Ignatius Letter to the Romans, Eucharistic imagery
“Then [when he dies] I will truly be a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world will no longer see my body” St. Ignatius Letter to the Romans
“It is better for me to die for Jesus Christ than to rule over the ends of the earth” Church Order: St. Ignatius Letter to the Romans
“Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by himself or through the apostles (for he was united with him), so you must not do anything without the bishop and the presbyters” Church Order: St. Ignatius Letter to the Romans
“But as Polycarp entered the stadium, there came a voice from heaven: ‘Be strong, Polycarp, and act like a man.’ And no one saw the speaker, but those of our people who were present heard the voice” Martyrdom of Polycarp
Not even his poor body should be taken away by us, although many desired to do this and to touch his holy flesh. So he put forward Nicetes... to plead not to give up his body, “lest, they should abandon the crucified one and begin to worship this man.” Martyrdom of Polycarp
For nearly all the preceding events happened in order that the Lord might show us once again a martyrdom which is in accord with the Gospel. Such is the story of the blessed ________. Martyrdom of Polycarp,
For this one, who is the Son of God, we worship, but the martyrs we love as disciples and imitators of the Lord, as they deserve, on account of their matchless devotion to their own King and Teacher. May we also become their partners and fellow-disciples! Martyrdom of Polycarp, imitating Christ
“Leave me as I am; for he who enables me to endure the fire will also enable me to remain on the pyre without moving, even without the sense of firmness which you get from the nails. So they did not nail him, but tied him instead. Martyrdom of Polycarp, Masculinity
Hoi Ioudaioi Residents of Judea (Jews). Appears 77 times in John. No Christians at the time of Christ, only Jews who followed Christ.
Documentary Hypothesis J Jahwist: Genesis, 1st part of exodus, anthropomorphic diety E Elohist: Elohim for God D Deuteronomist: Deuteronomy & Joshua, Judges, Kings. Likes Law P Priestly Author: Parts of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, most of Leviticus, priesthood and theocracy.
“Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves also with the same intention (for whoever has suffered in the flesh has finished with sin), So as to live…no longer by human desires but by the will of God.” 1 Peter, Suffering
“Conduct yourselves honorably among the Gentiles, so that, though they malign you as evildoers, they may see your honorable deeds and glorify God…” 1 Peter Suffering
"When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but entrusted himself to the one who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that... we might live for righteousness..." 1 Peter, Suffering, Submission, will create problems with authorizing oppression in the future
Jesus of History v Historical Jesus The actual person v the person who can be proved
Eschatology The field of study concerned with the final events of humankind: death, judgment, heaven, and hell
Multiple Attestation/Independent Attestation Tools used to see if words/actions are from Historical Jesus. The more witnesses, the better
Interim ethics Interpretation of Jesus' teachings to govern disciples briefly before second coming
Haustafeln Formula Household codes governing conduct between Husband/Wife, Parent/child, and master/slave
Sectarian response Hatred or discrimination that arises due to perceived differences between two groups
Armageddon The site of the end of the world. Is only mentioned in Revelations, and only once.
“write about what he has seen, what is and what is to take place after this” Revelation, "His servant John"
"Then I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the lampstands I saw one like the Son of Man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash across his chest... Revelations, Son of Man description
...His head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters... Revelations, Son of Man description
...In his right hand he held seven stars, and from his mouth came a sharp, two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining with full force." Revelation, Son of Man description
"And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever." Revelation, after Devil briefly reemerged and misled some cities
Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire; and anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire. Revelation, after Devil briefly reemerged and misled some cities
The angel who talked to me had a measuring rod of gold to measure the city, its gates and walls. The city lies foursquare, its length the same as its width; and he measured the city with his rod, 1500 miles; its length and width and height are equal. Revelation, description of the City of God
He also measured its wall, one hundred forty-four cubits by human measurement, which the angel was using. The wall is built of jasper, while the city is pure gold, clear as glass. Revelation, description of the City of God
The foundations of the wall of the city are adorned with every jewel; the 1st was jasper, 2nd sapphire, 3rd agate, 4th emerald, 5th onyx, 6th carnelian, 7th chrysolite, 8th beryl, the 9th topaz, the 10th chrysoprase, the 11th jacinth, the 12th amethyst. Revelation, description of the City of God
And the twelve gates are twelve pearls, each of the gates is a single pearl, and the street of the city is pure gold, transparent as glass. Revelation, description of the City of God
Disspensationalist sees Revelation as timetable for the rest of the world
Hellenization adopting Greek language, customs, education, architecture, religion
“Then the King wrote to the whole kingdom that all should be one people, and that all should give up their particular customs” 1 Maccabees, Theos Epiphanes, Antiochus IV Epiphanies claims he's godlike
“preferring to die nobly rather than to fall into the hands of sinners and suffer outrages unworthy of his noble birth” 2 Maccabees, Elder of Jerusalem during the rule of Antiochus IV, tried to kill himself 3 times, ended up throwing his entrails off of a boulder
“I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way” “a voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’” Mark, at the beginning is a misquote of Isaiah
“Can you drink the cup I drink or be baptized with the baptism I am baptized with? Mark, when two apostles ask to be at His right hand in Heaven
“Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me.” Mark, kind of a call to martyrdom?
“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Mark, portrays a human Jesus.
“My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death” Mark, Concerning because Greek heroes of that day welcomed death, and Jesus is shying away (in the garden before being betrayed)?
Synopsis seen together
Synoptic Problem an investigation into the relationship between Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Exegesis critical explanation of a text
Redaction Criticism regards author of biblical text as merely an editor of his source materials
Non-Documentary hypotheses (Traditionhypothese) oral explanations based on eye witness report
Direct-Dependence (Benutzunghypothese) the authors used one another
Hybrids dependent on other literary and documented sources
Triple Tradition; Markan Priority; Matthean Priority; Lukan Priority; Griesbach hypothesis; Material that is common to all three synoptic gospels; Mark> copied by Matthew and Luke; Matthew>copied by Mark> copied by Luke; Luke> Mark> Matthew; Mark combined Matthew and Luke
Double Tradition; Q Hypothesis; Lukan Posteriority; Matthean Posteriority; The material shared by Matthew and Luke but NOT mark; Matthew and Luke copied from Q; Luke copied Matthew; Matthew copied Luke
Occam's Razor Hypothesis with fewest assumptions must be selected
"We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come." Nicene Creed, not just an afterlife, but actual bodily resurrection
“I got these from heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again” 2 Maccabees, about his hands, idea that bodies will be restored
“How can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead? If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; and if Christ has not been raised, then our proclamation has been in vain and your faith has been in vain.” 1 Corinthians
"With what kind of body do they come?” Fool! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies...You do not sow the body that is to be, but a bare seed, perhaps of wheat... But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body… 1 Corinthians
What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable... It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. What I am saying... is this: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 1 Corinthians
"Mary should leave us, for females are not worthy of life." Jesus said, "See, I am going... to make her male so that she too might become a living spirit that resembles you males. For every female that makes itself male will enter the kingdom of heaven. Gospel of Thomas
“‘Why are you frightened, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have’” Luke, emphasized the physical body
Although the doors were shut, Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you.” Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it in my side. Do not doubt but believe.” John, substantial but can still pass through walls
Shaal Evolves into hell. Below ground calling to God and God doesn’t hear
Sitz-in-Leben Situation in life, describes background or genre
“Whoever is not with me is against me” Matthew, opposed with more positive version in Mark
Then he touched their eyes and said, “According to your faith let it be done to you”; and their sight was restored. Jesus warned them sternly, “See that no one knows about this.” But they went out and spread the news about him all over that region.”” Matthew, Blind men cannot physically see that Jesus is the Messiah but they believe. Pharisees can physically see, but do not believe
“It is not fair to take the children’s food and throw it to the dogs.” She said, “Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table.” Then Jesus answered her, “Woman, great is your faith! Let it be done for you as you wish.” Matthew, Non-Isrealite woman asks for miracle but even Israeli leaders don’t recognize him:
Parousia The second Coming of Christ
“Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” Matthew, The Great Commission
“Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink." John, cannibalism
"Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them. Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever eats me will live because of me." John, cannibalism
Trinitarianism God exists as three persons (hypostasis), but is one being
Ousia Essence
Hypostasis substance-existence-person, exists in its own right
Homoiousios similar essence
Homoousios identical essence
Christology Concerned with the nature and person of Christ in canon
Synod an assembly of clergy and sometimes laity
Monophysitism in Jesus, only one, divine nature instead of one divine and one human
Miaphysitism has equal nature of human and of divine
"And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it" Matthew
Papal Curia administrative unit of the Church
KANΩN measuring rod; evolved to mean rule, model, etc.
Heresy opinion contrary to orthodox religious doctrine
Apostolic succession uninterrupted transmission of spiritual authority from the Apostles through successive popes and bishops
Created by: raiver
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