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LD AP World II Ch 22

LD AP World II Chapter 22 - Vocabulary

Industrial Revolution The transformation of the economy, the environment & living conditions, occurring 1st in England in the 18th century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization manufacturing in factories & innovations in transportation & communication
Agricultural Revolution Transformation of farming that resulted (18th century) from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques & livestock breeding & the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants & sharecroppers were expelled.
Mass Production The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright.
Josiah Wedgwood English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
Division of Labor Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple & receptive task the can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other 18th century factories.
Mechanization Application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late 18th and early 19th century England.
Richard Arkwright English inventor & entrepreneur became the wealthiest & most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin many strong cotton threads at once.
Crystal Palace Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Steam engine Machine that turns energy released by burning fuel into motion.Thomas Newcomen built the 1st crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt improved his device in the 1760s & 1770s.Steam power was later applied to moving machinery & powering ships.
James Watt Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transpiration. The watt, an electrical measurement is names after him.
Electric Telegraph Device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England & North America in the 1830s & 1840s & replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores.
Laissez Faire The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic expositions of laissez-faire principles in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776).
Mercantilism European government policies of the 16th, 17th & 18th centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country & its colonies & accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country.
Positivism A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Believed that social & economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuos progress. Ideas became popular in France & Latin America in 19th century
Created by: desilva13