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World History

Chapter 11 Guided Reading and Answer Key

Main Idea: The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties brought stability and progress to China. Why did the Sui dynasty end? The second emperor, Sui Yangdi, was a cruel ruler who used forced labor to build the Grand Canal between the Huang He and Chang Jiang rivers. High taxes, his extravagant lifestyle, and military failures caused a rebellion.
What changes did the Tang dynasty make during its rule? The Tang dynasty gave land to the peasants and broke up large estates to reduce their owners' powers, restored the civil service exam to recruit officials, and brought peace to northwest China and expanded control into the area north of the Himalaya.
What challenges did leaders of the Song dynasty experience? Northern neighbors crossed into northern China and occupied large parts of Chinese territory. The Song lost control over Tibet; during the 1200s, the Mongols carried out wars of conquest, and within 70 years controlled all of China.
Main Idea: The Chinese government and economy developed and transformed during the rule of the three dynasties. What technological developments occurred during the rule of the three dynasties? Chinese began to make steel for swords by mixing cast iron and wrought iron; cotton was introduced which made it possible to make new kinds of clothes; gunpowder was created and was used to make explosives and a primitive flamethrower called a fire-lance.
How did trade change? Private merchants became active & guilds began to appear by the time of Song dynasty; a new economy based on $$ rather than barter appeared, & the use of paper $$ influenced the development of banking; long distance trade, both by land & by sea, expanded.
Why is the Silk Road an important development in China during this period? The Silk Road was not only a trading route, it was also a conduit of ideas— philosophies of the great religions and technical knowledge spread between the East and the West along the Silk Road.
Main Idea: Economic changes during the three dynasties changed Chinese society. What were some hobbies enjoyed by wealthy Chinese during this period? There were new forms of entertainment, such as playing cards and chess; the paddlewheel boat and horseback riding made travel easier; the invention of block printing in the eighth century provided new ways to communicate.
What changes took place in the countryside during this time? A more complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers emerged. The landed gentry became the political and economic elite.
Summarize the rule of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties in China. Part 1 A complete answer should include: after centuries of chaos and civil war, three dynasties unified China, bringing order, stability, and technological progress; rulers of the Tang dynasty instituted reforms and increased China’s influence in East Asia;
Summarize the rule of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties in China. Part 2 the Song dynasty experienced economic prosperity and cultural achievement; during the nearly 700 years of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties, the Chinese economy grew in size and complexity
Summarize the rule of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties in China. Part 3 and a mature political system emerged; the nature of Chinese trade changed and was often influenced by technological developments.
Who were the Mongols and how did they come under one ruler? Part 1 The Mongols were a pastoral people from the region of modern-day Mongolia and were loosely organized into clans. Temüjin gradually unified the Mongols.
Who were the Mongols and how did they come under one ruler? Part 2 In 1206, he was elected ruler and devoted himself to conquest. The Mongol army’s effective military tactics eventually brought much of the Eurasian landmass under a single rule.
What were the accomplishments of Kublai Khan? Kublai Khan completed the conquest of the Song and set up a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan. Under his leadership, the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty continued to expand.
How did the Mongols rule China? Part 1 Mongol rulers adapted to the Chinese political system and made use of Chinese bureaucrats. Over time, the Mongol dynasty won the support of many Chinese people.
How did the Mongols rule China? Part 2 The Mongols increased trade, especially along the Silk Road. The capital at Khanbalik was a magnificent city, and foreign visitors were impressed by its splendor.
Who were the first groups intrigued by Buddhism and Daoism, and why did they become more and more popular? Part 1 At first, only merchants and intellectuals were intrigued by the new ideas. However, because of the insecurity that prevailed after the collapse of the Han dynasty,
Who were the first groups intrigued by Buddhism and Daoism, and why did they become more and more popular? Part 2 Buddhism and Daoism became more attractive to many people. Both gained support among the ruling classes. Daoism was a rival system of ideas to Confucianism.
Why did Buddhism grow out of favor? 5. Buddhism was criticized for being a foreign religion; Buddhist monasteries became corrupt after acquiring thousands of acres of land and serfs; some Buddhist teachings contradicted Confucian teachings.
What is neo-Confucianism? Neo-Confucianism was a Confucian response to Buddhism and Daoism. It teaches that the world is real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world.
Why is the Tang dynasty viewed as the great age of poetry in China? What was expected of poetry during the Tang? Part 1 During this period at least 48,000 poems were written by some 2,200 authors. Poetry was expected to encourage high moral ideals and served as a means of self-expression.
Why is the Tang dynasty viewed as the great age of poetry in China? What was expected of poetry during the Tang? Part 2 Chinese poems celebrated the beauty of nature, the changes of the seasons, and the joys of friendship. They expressed sadness at the shortness of life and the necessity of parting.
How did Daoism influence painting in China? Part 1 Influenced by Daoism, artists went into the mountains to find the Dao, or Way, in nature. Empty spaces were left in paintings because in the Daoist vision,...
How did Daoism influence painting in China? Part 2 ...one cannot know the whole truth. Daoism also influenced the portrayal of humans as insignificant in the midst of nature.
What were the major accomplishments of Mongol rule of China? A complete answer should include: the Mongols created the world’s largest land empire, increased trade, and helped to foster the golden age of literature and art in China.
The ancestors of present-day Japanese settled near the modern cities of _______________ and _______________. Eventually, one ruler of the _______________ clan achieved supremacy over the others and became, in effect, ruler of Japan. Ōsaka, Kyōto, Yamato (first two either order)
In the early seventh century, _______________ tried to unify the various clans. Eventually he would begin to create a new centralized _______________ system of government, based roughly on the _______________ system of government. Shōtoku Taishi, Chinese
After Shōtoku Taishi’s death in 622, three periods followed before the collapse of central rule: the _______________ and _______________ periods and the period of the _______________. Nara; Heian, Kamakura shogunate
he _______________, which lasted from 1467 to 1477, led to the virtual destruction of the capital city of _______________. Onin War, Kyōto
Early Japan was mostly a farming society but _______________ did begin to develop during the _______________ period. manufacturing, Kamakura
Foreign trade, mainly with _______________ and _______________, began during the eleventh century. Korea, China (either order)
Although women did not possess the full _______________ and social _______________ of men, they played an active role at various levels of society and some became known for their artistic talents. legal, rights
The beliefs of early Japanese people evolved into a religion called _______________. However, it did not satisfy the spiritual needs of all the Japanese people, and some turned to _______________. Shinto, Buddhism
After driving out the Chinese in the A.D. 200s, three separate kingdoms emerged in Korea: _______________, _______________, and _______________. Koguryo, Paekche, Silla (any order)
Gradually, with the support of the _______________ dynasty of China, the kingdom of _______________ gained control of the peninsula. Tang, Silla
Finally, in the early tenth century, a new dynasty called _______________ arose in the north, which adopted _______________ political institutions. Koryo, Chinese
What characterized the politics and cultural life of early Japan? Part 1 A complete answer should include: the rule of Shōtoku Taishi, who attempted to unify the Japanese government and reform it based on the Chinese model; the political changes that occurred after Shōtoku Taishi’s death, .....
What characterized the politics and cultural life of early Japan? Part 2 ...such as the powerful aristocrats who taxed the Japanese people during the Nara period, the increased power of the samurai during the Heian period,...
What characterized the politics and cultural life of early Japan? Part 3 .... and the civil wars surrounding the Kamakura shogunate; the role of women and the religious and cultural lives of the Japanese.
Main Idea: After the collapse of the Gupta Empire, Muslim conquerors expanded east into India. _______________ became leader of an Islamic state in what is now Afghanistan in 977 and began to attack neighboring _______________ kingdoms to the southeast. Mahmūd of Ghazna, Hindu
By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plain of northern India, creating a new Muslim state known as the _______________. sultanate of Delhi
Main Idea: Islamic rule created tension in Indian society, but between 500 and 1500, Indian life remained much the same. n/a
The vast majority of Indians were _______________ who lived on the land and farmed their own tiny plots paying a share of their _______________ each year to a landlord. peasants, harvest
Many Indians also lived in _______________ where the landed elites and rich _______________ lived in conditions of considerable wealth. cities, merchants
Main Idea: Several organized states developed throughout Southeast Asia between 500 and 1500. n/a
The _______________ overthrew Chinese rule in Dai Viet and adopted the _______________ model for rule. Vietnamese, Chinese
_______________ established the Khmer empire or, _______________, which became the most powerful state in mainland _______________. Jayavarman, Angkor, Southeast Asia
In the late 1200s, the kingdom of _______________ emerged, incorporating most of the archipelago and perhaps parts of the mainland under a single rule. Majapahit
Main Idea: The states of Southeast Asia largely depended on trade or agriculture and were greatly influenced by cultures around them. n/a
States such as _______________, _______________, and _______________ drew most of their wealth from the land. Vietnam, Angkor, Pagan (any order)
Other states, such as the sultanate of _______________ , supported themselves through trade. Melaka
While Chinese culture made an impact on Vietnam, many areas of Southeast Asia were influenced by ____________ culture. One example of this is the temple of _______________, which combines Indian architectural techniques with _______________ inspiration. Indian, Angkor Wat, native (or local)
Summarize the cultural and political environments in Southeast Asia. A complete answer should include: India and the states of Southeast Asia were made up of diverse cultures; differences such as religion, sources of wealth, and the relationship between conqueror and conquered.
Created by: PLHSWorld1