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Unit 3 Mid Term Test

Unit 3: Age of Reason

How did religious beliefs and the role of the Church effect the way people viewed scientific discoveries and teaching during the 1500's and 1600's
How did Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes contribute to the development of a new way of thinking and observing the natural world called the "Scientific Method"
How did various scientific discoveries of the time impact society and culture?
What were some of the major ideas that developed during the Enlightenment and what impact did they have?
How did Europe views on the role of government change during the Enlightenment?
What role did the economic policies of "mercantilism" and "laissez-faire" play in Europe during the 1600's and 1700's?
What were some of the arguments of Enlightenment thinkers such as Rouseau, Montesquieu, Hobbs, Locke, and Voltaire?
Define Geocentric Theory An astronomical theory which describes the universe as a Geocentric system, i.e., a system which puts the Earth in the center of the universe, and describes other objects from the point of view of the Earth
Define Heliocentric Theory A theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it.
Who was Ptolemy Egyptian astronomer of Greek decent. The term “geocentric” came to being from this theory. Outlined the architecture of the universe
Who was Copernicus Provided first geometrical support for heliocentric theory in 1514.
Who was Galileo Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance
Who was Ptolemy Egyptian astronomer of Greek decent. The term “geocentric” came to being from this theory. Outlined the architecture of the universe
What was the intent of Science prior to the Scientific Revolution, To prove God exist
What was one of the leading Principles of the Scientific Revolution Logic over faith (religion was no longer the only possible explanation for events)
Who was Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesman, and scientist 1561-1650. Proposed Induction reasoning
What did Ptolemy famous text-Compositione Matematica- proved Earth is the center of the universe
What is the reasoning method that goes from Theory to a Fact Deduction
What is the reasoning method that goes from Observation to a Theory is called what Induction
Who was Rene Descartes Great mathematician (1596-1650) showed that all algebraic equations cold be plotted on a graph.
Define Deduction reasoning method that starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.
Define Induction reasoning method where one makes a lot of observations then generalize rules of nature - this leads to scientific observation as a method...seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion.
What mathematician is credited with using Deduction reasoning Rene Descartes
What are the four steps in Deduction Reasoning Theory; Hypothesis; Observation; Confirmation (Fact)
What is the philosophical method by which one makes many observations and then generalizes a rule based on those observations Induction
What do you call the perception one has of life and reality and how they fit into the larger order of the universe Worldview
Who was forced by the Catholic Church to publicly reject his own ideas because they were considered dangerous Galileo
Who used mathematical proof to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; Copernicus
Who used deduction to attempt to prove his own existence as well as the existence of God; Descartes
Who developed several new tools to science including the microscope and the telescope; Galileo
The earliest scientists focused on what field of study astronomy
The scientific worldview prior to the Scientific Revolution was dominated primarily by two scientific thinkers, including Ptolemy and this famous Greek; . Aristotle
Galileo was accused of, found guilty, and forced to recant his scientific ideas and teachings about the universe, identify 1 of his ideas that was belief to be contrary to the Bible and heretical; 1) the sun is at the center of the universe, not the earth & 2) the earth rotates on a daily basis
What are the four steps in Induction Reasoning Observation, Pattern, Tentative Hypothesis, Theory
Define Enlightenment Aftermath of the Scientific Revolution centered in France. Principal goals of Enlightenment thinkers were liberty, progress, reason, tolerance, and ending the abuses of the church and state
Who was Isaac Newton English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution
Who was Voltaire French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
Who was Denis Diderot French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie
Define the role of religion during the Enlightenment People were allowed more freedom of religion and freedom to question the teaching of the church
Who was Thomas Hobbes English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. viewed that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people
Who wrote the Encyclopedie Denis Diderot
Who was John Locke English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Believed that people by nature had certain rights and duties. These rights included liberty, life, and ownership of property.
Define Hobbes view on Human Nature That humans were competitive and fear was the most powerful motive for action
Define Lockes view on Human Nature That humans were basically reasonable and cooperative
What were the French Philosophes Philosophers during the Enlightenment
What were the Enlightened Despots absolute rulers that used Enlightened ideas to pursue legal, social, and educational reforms.
Who was Fredric II of Prussia AKA Frederick the Great Called himself the first servant of the state. Studied under Voltaire allowed religious freedom, freedom of the press, and banned torture
Who was Catherine II of Russia AKA Catherine the Great Set guidelines based on Montesquieu's theories. Opened hospitals and schools, supported arts Gave nobles absolute power over serfs
Who was Joseph II of Austria Influenced by Enlightenment ideals of equality and freedom. Reforms included, banned torture, abolished death penalty, allowed freedom of religion and press.
Who was Adam Smith Scottish philosopher who wrote Wealth of Nations and establish principles of economic behavior
What Philosophe admired constitutional monarchy's and was influenced by Locke Montesquieu
Who thought people act on their own self interest and through competition well promote general economic advancement Adam Smith
What are two basic principles of the Enlightenment Period 1. Human beings are good and educated to be better. 2. Reason is the key to truth, and religions that rely on blind faith or refuse to tolerate diversity are wrong.
How is the Enlightenment connected to the Scientific Revolution Enlightenment is a continuation of the Scientific Revolution with a focus on studying social and political reforms
Who were among the first to use the Scientific Approach to study man and his society Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
Define Scientific Method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Define Despots a ruler or other person who holds absolute power
Define Serfs an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
Who was the ruler of Austria that made many Enlightenment reforms Joseph II
Who was the ruler of Prussia that made Enlightenment reforms Frederick II
Who was the leader of Russia that made Enlightenment reforms Catherine II
Define Tariffs Taxes on trade between other countries
Define Economics Branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, & transfer of wealth
Who wrote the book Two Treatises of Government and strongly influenced Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.. John Lock
Define Mercantilism a system of economic regulation designed to strengthen the state and increase the gold and silver supply by encouraging industry, trade, and self sufficiency in agriculture and the production of raw materials.
Define Laissez-fair system of economy that allows business to operate with little government involvement. Believe real wealth comes from productive land, not gold or silver. Support free trade and opposed tariffs.
Created by: BKGoode