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CT Blood Vessel Revi

Blood Vessel Review

What are the 3 layers of blood vessel walls? Tunica Intima; Tunica Media, Tunic Externa
Tunica Intima inner layer
Tunica Media smooth muscle layer (responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation)
Tunica Externa outer layer
Basic features of arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart (except PA); thicker smooth muscle layer than veins; more elastic than veins; smaller lumen than veins
Basic features of arterioles Deliver blood to capillaries; greater influence n BP than arteries;
Basic Features of capillaries Microscopic, Exchange of gases, nutrients + wastes
What are the different types of capillaries Continuous; Fenestrated; Discontinuous
Continuous capillaries
Fenestrated capillaries
Discontinuous capillaries
Basic Features of venules
Basic features of veins Carry deoxygenated blood from body to heart (Except PVs)
Basic features of venules formed by several capillaries
What is a portal vein? vein that carries blood from one venous system to another venous system
Which blood vessels have the most influence on BP? Arterioles
What is capillary filtration the movement of water and solutes into interstitial fluid at the arterioler end of capillary
What is hydrostatic pressure? BP inside capillary, caused by LV contraction
What is blood colloid osmotic pressure? pressure of fluid due to its concentration of solutes/ proteins
How does filtration occur? when hydrostatic pressure is higher than osmotic pressure, water moves into the blood
What is capillary reabsorption? water moves back into the venule end of the capillary
How does capillary reabsorption occur? because osmotic pressure is higher than hydrostatic pressure (BP is lower than osmotic pressure) (osmosis and diffusion)
What is edema? excess fluid in the interstitial fluid
How does edema occur? from too much capillary filtration and not enough reabsorption (fluid stays in tissue spaces)
What are the factors influencing venous return? left ventricular systole (BP); skeletal muscle pump (muscle compression of veins); respiratory pump
What is blood pressure? Pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels
How is blood pressure created? left ventricular systole
What happens to BP as blood move through the circulatory system? decreases: aorta 100-120mmHg; Arterioles 60-70; capillaries 35-15mmHg; venules 15mmHg; veins 5-6mmHg; vena cava 0
Pulse Pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic BP 130/60 =70
MABP (mean arterial blood pressure) pressure that's averaged over an entire cardiac cycle- represents the pressure that pushes blood through the entire system
What are factors that affect BP? resistance; viscosity; turbulence
Why does capillary filtration happen? because capillary hydrostatic pressure (BP) is higher than the blood colloid osmotic pressure
capillary hydrostatic pressure is Blood pressure
Which plasma protein are we concerned about? albumin
What happens on inhalation diaphragm moves down, abdominal veins compressed; blood gets pushed up towards RA
What happens on exhalation diaphragm moves up; compression on abdominal veins decreases; blood gets pulled up from legs; veins help to prevent backflow
Normal MABP 70-110mmHg
What is the number that indicates inadequate perfusion? 60 or less mmHg
resistance the more length there is the more resistance; the smaller the diameter the more resistance you have
viscosity increased viscosity = increased resistance
turbulence is: a disruption in flow; increases resistance
Created by: ICVT2b