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W. His Sem1 Final

World History Semester 1 Final

QuestionAnswer
Renaissance Period of European history,1300-1600,renewed interest in classical culture led to far reaching changes in art. learning and view of the world
Renaissance Man man who excelled in many fields, also called a universal man
humanism Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
secular Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
patron A person who supports artists, especially financially
vernacular The everyday language of people in a region or country
Niccolo Machiavelli Statesman of Florence, Italy, who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527
Michelangelo Florentine sculptor, painter, and architect; one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance (1475-1564)
Leonardo da Vinci Painter of the Mona Lisa, was a renaissance man because he was a painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist, studied how muscles moved and incorporated it in his paintings
The Mona Lisa Painted by da Vinci,
The Last Supper Painted by da Vinci , it shows the personalities of Jesus' disciples through facial expressions
Sistine Chapel Room in a building at the Vatican where the painting of the LAST SUPPER by daVinci covers one whole wall. Also contains paintings on the ceiling by Michelangelo
William Shakespeare Most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age.wrote plays that would be preformed at the GLOBE Theater
Henry VIII King of England (1509-1547), divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break form Catholic Church and his excommunication 1538, lead to the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547)
Johann Gutenberg Developed a printing press that made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply.
Martin Luther German theologian who led the Reformation;believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
Reformation 16th Century movement or religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority
indulgence A pardon releasing a person from punishment due to a sin
Protestant A member of a Christian church founded on principles of the Reformation
Results of the Peace of Augsburg Agreement that the each German ruler would decide the religion of his state
predestination The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand including which people will be eternally saved
Calvinism A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin
theocracy Government controlled by religious leaders
Results of the Council of Trent Church's interpretation of Bible was final, Christians could not be saved by faith alone, Bible and Church tradition were used equally for guiding Christianity, false selling of indulgences was banned
Results of the Catholic Reformation Catholic Church became more unified, started parish schools and colleges, womens' place in society improved, individual monarchs and states gained power, laid ground work for Enlightenment Period
Explain the role of God, Glory, and Gold in world exploration become rich, spread Christianity, come back to home country as a hero
Bartholomeu Diaz Early Portuguese explorer, first to sail around the southern tip of Africa, motives were to bring Christianity to others serve his King and grow rich
Prince Henry the Navigator son of Portugal's king who used his own fortune to organize more than 14 voyages along the western coast of Africa, purpose spread Christianity and find new lands
Vasco da Gama First to sail to India by sailing around the southern tip of Africa, brought back spices, gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, Discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain, to the east of the line would belong to Portugal
Line of Demarcation An imaginary line drawn north to south through the Atlantic Ocean created by the Treaty of Tordesillas. All land to the west of the line belonged to Spain, all land east of the line belonged to Portugal
Dutch East India Company Founded by Dutch in early 17th Century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia
Tokugawa Shogunate A dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
Kabuki A type of Japanese drama that combines music, dance, and mime
Haiku Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three un-rhymed lines of dive, seven, and five syllables
Alternate attendance policy Diamyo were to spend one year in the capital and
Caravel A small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the western African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean
kowtow To kneel or bow to another as an act of respect
Accomplishments of Hernando Cortes Landed on shores of Mexico, colonized Caribbean Islands, marched into American mainland claimed land for Spain, Spanish were first to European settles to set up colonies in America
Joint-stock Companies Business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
Accomplishments of Christopher Columbus Thought found route to East Indies,but landed on island off shore of America, claimed island for Spain, named it San Salvador,returned with 1000 sik
encomienda system Grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Columbia Exchange Global transfer of plants, animals and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
Mercantilism Economic policy, nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Favorable Balance of Trade An economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
conquistador A Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
colony Land controlled by another nation
Accomplishments of Francisco Pizarro Marched a small force into South America and conquered the Incan Empire,
mestizo A person of mixes Spanish and Native Ameriacn ancestry
Results of the French and Indian War Also known as the Seven Year War,conflict over land in America between French and English, English won-France surrendered its holding to English, now England controlled eastern half of North America
Atlantic slave trade The buying, transporting and selling of African for work in the Americas
triangular trade route Goods from New England(America) rum and other goods were transported to Africa, exchanged for captured Africans,Africans sold in East Indies, money used to buy sugar & molasses which was transported to Americas where is was sold to make rum
middle passage Voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America to be sold as slaves
capitalism Economic system based on private ownership of businesses and the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit (money)
Philip II Hard working, trusted no one, inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands,
absolute monarch A king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of a society
divine right The idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God
Edict of Nantes 1598 declaration by French king Henry IV promised Protestants could live in peace in France and set up houses of worship in some French cities
skepticism Philosophy that nothing can be known for certail
intendant
War of Spanish Succession Conflict from 1701 to 1713 in which European States fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France
Louis XIV King of France from 1643 to 1715, his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles
Cardinal Richelieu Principal minister to Louis XIII, King Louis took the throne as a young boy, this minister ruled France with a strong hand until his death (1585-1643)French prelate and statesman
Jen Baptiste Colbert Minister of finance for French King Louis XIV
Reasons and result of the Thirty Year War Reason-conflict over religion & territory and power among European families- Hapsburg family won the fight
Important consequences of the Peace of Westphalia Peace negotiations, weakened Spain & Austria, strengthened France by giving them Germain territory
boyar Land owning nobles of Russia
Westernization under Peter the Great Modernized army, introduced potatoes, newspaper, raised women's social status, mad all wear western clothing, advanced education, created schools for navigation, arts & science
Results of the English Civil War
restoration Restoring of monarch in England by Charles II, period of Charles II's rule over England after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government
habeaus corpus Document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
Results of the Glorious Revolution
Huguenots Members of French Protestant Reform Church in the 16th & 17th century
Cardinal Mazarin Successor of Cardinal Richelieu - he ended the 30 year war.
constitutional monarchy A system of government in which the ruler's power is limited by law
cabinet Group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
Oliver Cromwell English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Aristotle Created the Geocentric Theory, the moon, sun and stars revolved around the Earth, Greek philosopher of the 4th Century
Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist. remembered for developing calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1643-1725)
Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer and mathematician, first to use a telescope to study the stars, demonstrated that different weights fall at the same rate, perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries
Johannes Kepler Mathematician. planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles, demonstrated theory mathematically
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473- 1543)
Voltaire Writer, philosopher, published more that 70 books which made fun of the clergy, aristocracy & government, fought for freedom of speech & reason. His pen name was Fr
John Locke Philosopher, felt people could learn from mistakes and they do have the ability to govern themselves they have the ability to look after their own welfare
Thomas Hobbes Felt all humans are selfish / wicked need government to protect order in society
Montesquieu Believed in division of power among the branches of govern. wrote "On the Spirit of Law"
Denis Diderot Created first Encyclopedia- it held articles & essays written by leading scholars of Europe-helped spread Enlightenment ideas all over Europe
Frederick the Great King of Prussia, dedicated himself to reforms, granted religious freedom,reduced censorship, improved education, reformed justice system, abolished torture
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire(1729 -1796) ruled with absolute authority, but also sought reforms
Thomas Jefferson Writer of the Declaration of Independence for the United States which was based on the ideas of John Locke ,it stated that the colonies were declaring their separation from Britian
Articles of Confederation First Constitution of the United States of America, established the United States as a republic, where citizens ruled through elected representatives
Constitution of the United States The supreme law of the land, a document that put Enlightenment ideas into practice; the writes felt that reason and reform could prevail and progress was inevitable
philosopher One of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment
neoclassical Relating to a simple, elegant style
Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments to the US Constitution, deal with human rights
Steps in the Scientific Method 1. Identify the question or problem, 2. Form a hypotheses or an unproved assumption 3.Test your hypotheses in an experiment 4. Analyze and interpret the data to reach a conclusion 5. either prove your hypotheses to be true or untrue
Law of Universal Gravitation The key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth, every object in the universe attracts every other object
Baron de Montesquieu
geocentric theory The moon, sun and stars revolved around the Earth, stated by Aristotle, a Greek philosopher of the 4th Century
heliocentric theory Theory stated by Copernicus that planets revolve around the sun
social contract People handed over some of their rights to a strong leader in exchange for safety, law and order. Idea is credited to Thomas Hobbes
salon Large drawing rooms where a hostess held regular social
baroque
enlightened despot
check and balances
federal system
Old Regine
name 3 estates infor
Lous XVI King of France (1774-1792), his failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution, he and his queen(Marie Antoinette) were guillotined (1754-1793)
Marie Antoinette
Estates-General Assembly of the estates of all France/ last meeting in 1789
National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath The Third Estate delegates found themselves locked out of their meeting room so they broke down the door of the tennis court and stayed until all the bugs were ironed out of their new Constitution
Great Fear Senseless panic, a rumor spread that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants-intern the peasants became outlaws themselves
bourgeoisie The middle class people of society,the employers, people that have. Marxist idea that the Industrial Revolution helped the haves get richer, the poor get poorer and the poor would rebel against the haves
Legislative Assembly New body in France held power to create laws and approve or reject war
Emigres Nobles and others who fled France, hoping to undo the Revolution and restore the old Regime
Sans-culottes Those without knee britches-partisan workers and shop keepers who wanted the French Revolution
Jacobins French radical political organization p people involved in governmental changes
Guillotine A machine used to behead people
Reign of Terror Term given to time Robespierre governed France as a dictator
Maximilen Robespierre Jacobin leader - ruled France for one year
Napoleon Bonaparte Great French hero for winning military battles which lead to the revolution to take over French government
Coup d'Etat Sudden seizure of power - 'blow to the states'
plegiscite A vote of the people
lychees Government run public schools
concordat Agreement
Napoleonic Code Napoleon's comprehensives system of laws
Admiral Nelson and the Battle of Trafalgar
blockade Force-able closing of parts
Continental System Napoleon's name for closing the ports top prevent trade and communication between Great Britain and Europe
guerillas Spanish peasant fighters - hit hard hit fast disappear
Peninsular War Battles fought on Spain's Iberian Peninsula
scorched-earth policy Burn grain fields and slaughter live stock to leave nothing behind for the enemy to eat
Results of the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon lost - Britain shipped Napoleon to St. Helena, a remote island in the South Atlantic
The Hundred Days Napoleon's bid for power
Accomplishments and long term lagacy of the Congress of Vienna
Klemens von Metternich Foreign minister of Austria
Balance of power No country in Europe would/could easily overpower another
legitimacy Hereditary right of a monarch to rule
Purpose of the Holy Alliance Pledge that was based on using Christian principles in order to combat forces of revolution
Concert of Europe Series of alliances ensuring nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out
National Convention New governing body in France-abolished monarchy and declared France as a republic
left wing Opposed the idea of a monarchy, wanted many changes in how the government was run
right wing Wanted a limited monarchy and only a few changes in how the government was run
Industrial Revolution Greatly increased the out put of machine made goods that began in England
industrialization The machine production of goods
enclosures Large fields that were fenced or a high hedge grew all around them
crop rotation Method of planting different crops on a piece of land each year
Factors of Production Land, labor, capital
entrepreneur A person who organizes,manages and takes on the risks of a business
urbanization City building buildings and the movement of people to the city
middle class Social class made up of skilled workers,professionals, and business people and weal;thy farmers
stock Shares of a company--buying stock in a company makes the purchaser part owner of the company
stock holder A person who owns share/stock in a company
corporation Business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personal responsible for its debts
capitalism Economic system in which factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit
utilitarianism Theory of Jeremy Bentham,late 1700's government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
socialism Factors of production are owned by the public, operated for the benefit of all
communism Form of complete socialism, meas of production, all land,mines,factories,railroads, businesses would be owned by the people,private property would not exist,goods and services would be shared
unions An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
strike To refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demands
laissez faire Government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses
Adam Smith Wrote "The Wealth of Nations", argued that a government should not interfere in the economy, liberty guarantees economic progress
reform movement Improved workplace and extended the right ot vote to working class men, rose in response to negative impact of Industrialization
Karl Marx Introduced to the world a radical type of socialism called Marxism
collective bargaining Negotiations between workers and their employers. Bargained for better working conditions, fewer hours and higher pay
agricultural revolution Time marked by improvements in farm technology and productivity
free-market system Distribution and use of resources are determined by there supply and demand for them
annul To cancel or set aside
Created by: sudokken