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Chapter 14

The Formation of Western Europe

Simony The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
Gothic Relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires
Urban II Pope that pushed for the the Crusades in order to protect Christian interests in the Holy Land
Crusade One of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
Saladin Muslim leader in the Crusades. He took control over Jerusalem easily
Richard the Lion-Hearted English king during the Third Crusade. Brilliant military leader that reached a truce with the Muslims in 1192. Catholics were allowed to visit the city's holy places as a result
Reconquista The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492
Inquisition A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy-especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s
Three-Field System A system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted
Guild A medieval association of people working the same occupation, which controlled its members' wages and prices
Commercial Revolution The expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
Burgher Medieval merchant-class town dweller
Vernacular The everyday language of people in a region or country
Thomas Aquinas Christian scholar that believed basic religious truths could be proved with reason
Scholastics Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities
William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy that claimed the English crown after King Edward died in 1066. William defeated the Anglo-Saxons in the Battle of Hastings to take total control over England
Henry II Descendant of William the Conqueror. His marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine added France to English land possessions. He also vastly increased to power of courts in England
Common Law A unified body law formed from rulings of England's royal judges that serves as the basis for law in many English-speaking countries today, including the United States.
Magna Carta "Great Charter" --a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215.
Parliament A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation.
Hugh Capet An undistinguished duke from the middle of France, succeeded Louis the Sluggard.
Phillip II (Philip Augustus) One of the most powerful Capetians. Ruled between from 1180 to 1223.
Estates-General When the first three Estates met up together in France for a meeting.
Avignon A city in France, where Clement V moved the head quarters of the church to.
Great Schism A division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome.
John Wycliffe Englishman that preached that Jesus was the head of the church, not the pope. Also preached that Bible alone was the final authority for Christian life. Inspired an English translation of the New Testament of the Bible
Jan Hus Influenced by Wycliffe's writings. Taught that the Bible was higher authority than the pope
Bubonic Plague A deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people
Hundred Years' War A conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to 1453
Joan of Arc A French peasant girl, moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. She was burned at the stake by the English.
Created by: tj03tayl