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gene: a section of genetic material (DNA) that has a specific function
allele: the alternative form of a gene that occurs at a given locus.
mitosis the process of replication of chromosomes in body cells.
meiosis: the creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by two cell divisions.
Mendel’s Principle of Segregation: Alleles (what Mendel called factors) segregate (separate) during the formation of sex cells. The genetic basis of any trait is determined by one allele from each parent
Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment: The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
Ardipithecus ramidus Currently considered hominid by most experts. Strong evidence of bipedality; retained features for tree-climbing
Australopithecus afarensis Early australopithecine species. Includes “Lucy.” Bipedal, small cranial capacity, some primitive dental traits. Long arms and curved fingers/toes.
Australopithecus garhi Large teeth, small brain, may have made stone tools. Possible ancestor to Homo
Robust Australopithecines (A. boisei, A. robustus, A. aethiopicus) Sometimes separated into their own genus Paranthropus. Called robust australopithecines due to their large molar teeth and jaws and sagittal crests.
Homo erectus Larger cranial capacity and body size than H. habilis. Thick skull and large browridges. More modern body proportions (leg length). Some think the African and Asian variants should be different species
Archaic humans; Sometimes called H. heidelbergensis Much disagreement on classification. Larger and thinner cranial vault and less facial prognathism than H. erectus.
Neandertals (Homo neandertalensis) Sometimes referred to as subspecies (H. sapiens neanderthalensis). Robust postcranial skeleton; long skull with occipital bun; midfacial prognathism
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens Anatomically similar to humans today. High forehead, rounded cranium, chin.
Homo erectus fossils have been found in all of the following areas EXCEPT? North America
The earliest (oldest) anatomically modern human fossils date to about 190,000 years ago and come from Africa
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens typically have a rounded skull and distinctive pointed chin
. According to the most recent DNA studies, people from ___________ share the most genes with Neandertals. Italy
There is strong evidence for which species being the first to use stone tools? Homo habilis
The Multiregional model for modern human origins states that Homo sapiens evolved as a single interbreeding species in Africa, Europe and Asia
The Mousterian tool industry consists of . rounded flake tools used by Neandertals
Acheulean tools are associated primarily with the species Homo erectus
Members of the genus Australopithecus tend to have much larger ___________ than either chimpanzees or modern humans molar teeth
Which of the following activities was performed by early modern Homo sapiens (Upper Paleolithic) people, but NOT by Neandertals? painting elaborate cave art
Created by: mluz2012