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RS Histology 2

Respiratory System Histology -Nasal Cavity

The nose is made up of: 2 cavities
Between the 2 cavities is: A nasal septum
Each cavity has: Lateral, medial walls A roof and floor
The anterior opening of the nose: Anterior naris
The posterior opening of the nose: Posterior naris
The anterior naris is the: Vestibule
The posterior naris is the: Choana
The most anterior and dilated portion of the nasal cavity is: The vestibule
The vestibule is lined by: Skin
The vestibule contains: Sebaceous and sweat glands Vibrissae
What are vibrissae? Thick, short hairs
What is the function of the vibrissae? To trap and filter out large particles from the inspired air
What is the Choana? The opening between the nose and the nasopharynx
What do we have on the lateral wall of the Choana? The opening of the Eustachian tube
What is the function of the Eustachian tube? Passage of air to the middle ear to equalize the pressure around the tympanic membrane (ear drum)
What do we have after the vestibule? The antrum or atrium
What do we have on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity? Three conchae and three hiatuses
What is the purpose of conchae? They increase the surface area of the lateral wall of the nose to maximize the function of the nasal cavity
The conchae are Rich in blood vessels to warm the incoming air
What structures make up the roof of the nasal cavity? 1) The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone 2) The olfactory region made up of bipolar cells
What makes up the floor of the nasal cavity? The Hard palate
The anterior part of the nose is formed by: Cartilage
The base of the nose is formed by: The Nasal, frontal, and maxillary bones
What type of epithelium is present on the nasal vestibule? Keratinized stratified squamous
Within the vestibule, what changes to the epithelium occur? The epithelium loses its keratinized nature and transitions into typical respiratory epithelium before entering the nasal fossae
The respiratory region of the nasal cavity is composed of: 3 conchae and three hiatuses
What is the epithelium of the respiratory region? Pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells
The submucosa is rich in: Blood vessels, especially venous blood
What is the purpose of the submucosa? To warm and moisturize the air
The Olfactory region has what types of cells? 1) Olfactory epithelium 2) Corium (Lamina propria) 3) Bowman's glands
What type of epithelium is the olfactory epithelium? Ciliated Pseudostratified columnar
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium is composed of 3 cells: 1) Supporting (Substenacular) columnar cells 2) The Basal cells 3) Olfactory cells
What are olfactory cells? Bipolar neurons responsible for smell sensation
Why are they called olfactory cells? Afferent axons of these cells synapse with the olfactory nerve
What rises from the apexes of the olfactory cells? Non motile cilia (dendrites)
Describe the basal cells They are characterized by mitosis and are responsible for replacing other cells. They are spherical and cone shaped
Describe the supporting (sustenacular cells) They function as metabolic and physical support for the olfactory cells Their nuclei are more apically located than those of the olfactory cells They contain yellow pigment They have microvilli
Where are the Bowman's glands? In the lamina propria
What is the function of the Bowman's glands? They function to trap and dissolve different substances for the bipolar neurons
What are the nasal sinuses? Air filled spaces present in some of the skull bones
Nasal sinuses are lined by: Respiratory mucosa
The function of paranasal sinuses: 1) Resonance of the voice 2) Protection 3) Reduce the weight in the skull
How many sinuses do we have? 2 frontal sinuses 2 sphenoidal sinuses 2 maxillary sinuses 6 ethmoidal sinuses
All of the sinuses open into: The lateral wall of the nose
All of the sinuses have good draining except for the: Maxillary sinus which drains above the middle meatus
The paranasal sinuses contains only a few: Goblet cells
General description of the bronchioles: Rich in smooth muscles, absent goblet cells and glands
What is the anatomical position of the trachea? It lies below the larynx It starts from the 6th cervical vertebrae Ends at the 4th thoracic vertebrae (bifurcation) -at the level of the sternal angle
The trachea is divided into: Right main bronchus and left bronchus
The fibroelastic ligament of the trachea prevents: Over distention of the lumen
The trachealis muscle allows: Bolus to pass through the esophagus without obstruction
Which of the following are involved in the cough reflex? Contraction of the trachealis muscle Resultant narrowing of the tracheal lumen
The most important function of the mucus in the trachea is: To trap the dust and foreign particles
The lamina propria of the trachea: Rich in elastic fibers Contains an abundance of mucous and serous glands Respiratory epithelium with fewer goblet cells
Created by: Ulaisl