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Chapter 13 & 17

Winter Vocabulary List

William, Duke of Normandy DEFINITION: First Norman king of England, Became Duke of Normandy after the Battle of Hastings. SIGNIFICANCE: He won the Battle of Hastings and added a slew of French and Latin words to the English dictionary (couldn't speak English)
Lief Eriksson DEFINITION: An Icelandic explorer. SIGNIFICANCE: Lief Eriksson discovered Greenland is considered by many to be the first European to land in North America.
Gothic Cathedrals DEFINITION: Gothic Cathedrals Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. SIGNIFICANCE:
Bubonic Plague DEFINITION: Bubonic Plague Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people SIGNIFICANCE:
Leo III DEFINITION: Leo III the Isaurian also known as the Syrian, was Byzantine Emperor until his death. SIGNIFICANCE: He put an end to a period of instability, successfully defended the Empire against the invading Umayyads, and forbade the veneration of icons.
Theme System DEFINITION: divided the Byzantine Empire into different districts SIGNIFICANCE: They were created so that the military could respond quickly to attacks, also peasants who joined the army were given plots of land, thereby increasing the free peasant class.
Iconoclasm DEFINITION: The action of attacking or assertively rejecting cherished beliefs and institutions or established values and practices;the rejection or destruction of religious images as heretical; the doctrine of iconoclasts. SIGNIFICANCE:
Greek Fire DEFINITION: An incendiary weapon developed c. 672 and used by the Byzantine Empire. SIGNIFICANCE:The importance placed on Greek fire during the Empire's struggle against the Arabs would lead to its discovery being ascribed to divine intervention.
Schism DEFINITION: The separation between the two branches of Christianity in 1054 C.E. SIGNIFICANCE:The outcome was the creation of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches.
Hagia Sophia DEFINITION: Hagia Sophia is a former Christian church, later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey SIGNIFICANCE: The Hagia Sophia was the largest cathedral built at the time and was converted to a mosque by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet.
Charlemagne DEFINITION: He united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy from 774. From 800 he became the first Holy Roman Emperor — the f
Holy Roman Empire DEFINITION: The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. SIGNIFICANCE:
Serfs DEFINITION: An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate. SIGNIFICANCE:
Vassals DEFINITION: Vassals Manors in medieval europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege SIGNIFICANCE:
Manors DEFINITION: Vassals Manors in medieval europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege SIGNIFICANCE:
Horse Collar/ Watermills DEFINITION: SIGNIFICANCE:
Pope Gregory I DEFINITION: Pope Gregory I 590-604 was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction; "Gregory the Great"; mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome SIGNIFICANCE:
Hajj DEFINITION: The Hajj, or the Pilgrimage, is the last among those acts of Worship, which Islam enjoins upon you. SIGNIFICANCE: Like the prayer, Fasting and Almsgiving, it mounds your life and prepares you so that you may live in surrender to Allah.
Caliph DEFINITION: Most famous example of Byzantine architecture. SIGNIFICANCE: It was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Shia DEFINITION: A branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib. SIGNIFICANCE:
Umma DEFINITION: The term takes on a religious connotations in the Qur'an where God is said to have sent to each ummah its own messenger.SIGNIFICANCE:
Abbasid DEFINITION: The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. SIGNIFICANCE
Qadis DEFINITION: A judge in a Muslim community, whose decisions are based on Islamic religious law. SIGNIFICANCE:
Ibn Rushd DEFINITION: Influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions and Greek thought. SIGNIFICANCE:
Created by: angelica3102