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Chapter 6

Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

TermDefinition
Republic Form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote
Patricians In ancient Rome, a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class
Plebeians In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population
Tribunes In ancient Rome, an official elected by the Plebeians to protect their rights
Consuls In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government
Senate In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats
Dictator In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time
Legion A military unit of ancient Roman army, made up of about 5000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback
Punic Wars A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 BC); Resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
Hannibal Carthaginian general that led the 2nd Punic War. Planned to invade Rome from the north with a massive army. Plan worked initially, but Rome was able to regroup and defeat him
Civil war A conflict between two political groups within a country
Julius Caesar Military leader that became an absolute ruler in Rome. Instituted a number of reforms that made him popular among the people of Rome. Roman senators would eventually kill him
Triumvirate a group of three leaders sharing control of the government
Augustus real name is Octavian, Caesar's grand nephew, restored parts of the republic
Pax romana a period of peace and prosperity throughout the roman empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D 180
Jesus his ideas come from Jewish traditions, such as monotheism, and the principles of the Ten commandments. he stressed the importance of people's love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and even themselves
Apostles a group of followers of Jesus who preached and spread his teachings
Paul an apostle who had enormous influence on Christianity's development. He never met Jesus and at first was an enemy of Christianity.
Diaspora the dispersal of jews
Constatine A roman emperor who ended persecution of Christians in Rome
Bishop A priest who supervised several local churches
Peter An apostle who traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became the first bishop there
Pope The father or head of the Christian church
Inflation a drastic drop in the value pf money coupled with a rise in princes
Mercenaries foreign soldiers who fought for money
Diocletian Roman empire who ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms, he restored order to the empire and increased its strength
Constantinople the new capitol of Rome
Attila United the huns to defeat the roman empire
Greco-Roamn culture the mixture of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture
Pompeii destroyed by mount Vesuvius erupted, covering it in a thick layer of ash and killing about 2,000 residents.
Aqueducts designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns.
Created by: tj03tayl