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Chapter 5

Classical Greece

TermDefinition
Mycenaeans Indo-European person who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 BC
Trojan War War fought around 1200 BC in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia
Dorians A Greek-speaking people that, according to tradition, migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization
Homer Greatest storyteller in Greece that wrote epics about Greek history. One of his greatest works was the Illiad
Epics A long narrative poem celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes
Myths A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society
Polis A Greek city-state. The fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after 750 BC
Acropolis A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Monarchy A government in which power is in the hands of a single person
Aristocracy A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Oligarchy A government in which power is in the hands of a few people-especially one in which rule is based upon wealth
Tyrants In ancient Greece, a powerful individual who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing to the poor for support
Democracy A government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives
Helots In the society of ancient Sparta, a peasant bound to the land
Phalanx A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
Persian Wars A series of wars in the 5th century BC in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire
Direct Democracy A government in which citizens rule directly rather than through representatives
Classical Art The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
Tragedy A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character
Comedy a humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick and satire
Peloponnesian war a war, lasting from 431 to 404 BC, in which Athens and it's allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
Philosophers a thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe,human society, and morality
Socrates Greek philosopher who wanted Greeks to go further and question themselves and their moral characters
Plato Greek philosopher who believed the idea society is split into 3 groups: farmers and artisans, warriors, and the ruling class
Aristotle Greek philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge
Phillip the 2nd King of Macedonia, took over Greece. Alexander the greats fathe
Macedonia Located just north of Greece, had rough terrain and a cold climate
Alexander the great created one the worlds largest empire expanding from Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia and India
Darius III King of Persia, had an army of between 50,000 and 75,000 men to defeat Alexander. He was defeated by Alexander
Hellenistic Relating to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late 2nd century BC
Alexandria Egyptian city that became the capital of Hellenistic civilization
Created by: tj03tayl