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World Civ

Roman Republic a flexible form of government by elected representatives that proved capable of military conquest and administrative efficiency
Carthaginian Empire former phoenecian colony, great naval power, tried to conquer sicily, rome thought it would threaten its control of italy, reason for the punic wars
Struggle of the Orders bitterly divisive social contest between the patricians and plebeians
Patricians Roman aristocracy, hold most land and political offices, wealthy, powerful citizens, nobles, small minority of population
Plebeians common people, peasants, craftsmen, traders, not necessarily poor, no political office
Senate chief executives, most powerful branch
Hannibal led Carthage during the second and third Punic Wars, crossed Alps with elephants
Punic Wars 3 wars between Carthage and republican rome, fighting over the island of sicily, romans won
Latifundia large estates being taken care of by slaves while landowners are gone
Tiberius Gracchus tribune represents Plebeians, reposed bill and said to redistribute land to make it fair
Gaius Gracchus said people should only get 500 iugera (320 acres), later killed by a mob
Rubicon means "point of no return," Caesar said: "the die is cast," river
Julius Caesar governor of Cisalpine Gaul, crossed the Rubicon River, declared himself dictator for life after pompey, grants citizenship to many people from provinces, appoints senators from provinces, orders landowners to hire free workers instead of just slaves
First Triumvirate political alliance consisting of three rulers (marcus licinius, pompey, and julius caesar) formed by pompey
Ides the 13th or 15th day of the month
Nones the 5th or 7th day of the month
Kalends the first day of the month
Roman Empire no longer a roman republic, start of roman emperors
Princeps "first" citizen, made Pontifex maximus (high priest), made tribune, not a king, Octavian (Augustus)
Imperator emperor (not the same as king), Octavian (Augustus)
Pontifex Maximus high priest, name given to Octavian (Augustus)
Primus inter pares "first among equals," title gives the illusion that Octavian (Augustus) was elected
Praetorian Guard special force of 9x500 soldiers, cohort (9)
Aqueduct bring water to villages
Pax Romana no internal wars, "roman peace"
Paterfamilias oldest male figure of the household, lord/master of the home controlled and owned everything as if it were property (even family), had the right to kill his children
Materfamilias duties to organize the household, distributed tasks to slaves, marriage was always arranged, woman owned the dowry, married very early, marriage was legal matter, men allowed to go to brothels, rich people bought slaves for pleasure
Di manes
Di lares
Sadducees comes from Zadok (high priest under king solomon) opposed the pharisees, aristocratic priestly families, did not accept oral law, only Torah, rejected existence of angels, spirits, resurrection, afterlife, opposed Jesus and disciples, worked with Romans
Pharisees "those who have been set apart" believe oral and written law, made sure Jewish state is strictly governed by Torah, believed in afterlife, angels, spirits, resurrection, and the coming of the Messiah, and opposed Roman rule
Essenes hid the dead sea scrolls, lived in caves in the desert like hermits, monastic lifestyle (like a monk), live a life of abstinence, concluded that theworld would end soon
Zealots radical believer, practiced terrorism and assassinatino not only against God's romans but also against some jews, want to overthrow Roman rule by force, would stab Roman soldiers and run away, some did not consider them Jewish sects
Torah first five books of the Tanakh (Books of Moses), where Jews got their written law
Written vs. Oral Law oral law was the rabbis' commentary on the written law, memorized and passed down through generations
Talmud oral law that had been written down
Messiah "Savior or anointed one" must come from the Davidic line
Theudas claimed to be the Messiah in 45 CE
Simon bar Kokhba claimed to be the Messiah, started Jewish revolt against Romans, annihilated many Roman soldiers
John the Baptist a desert preacher, prophesied that the Messiah would soon arrive, probably essene
Jesus of Nazareth descendant of David, grew up in Nazareth, began preaching at age 30, 12 disciples, used parables, taught that jews must love each other like they love God, sought to establish a spiritual kingdom, not a political one
Peter galilean follower of Jesus and a man of traditional jewish beliefs who felt that Jesus' teachings were meant exclusively for jews
Paul of Tarsus Greek-speaking Jew but Roman citizen, most likely a Pharisee, considered Jesus and his followers blasphemous, killed Christians, became one of the greates missionaries
Neronian Persecution
Last Supper last meal Jesus had with his followers before he was crucified, passover
Antonio Bosio italian scholar, author of roma sotterranea, "columbus of the catacombs"
Roma Sotterranea
Catacombs Christians used these as a place of worship in order to stay hidden and not be persecuted
Ichthus "Jesus Christ Son of God Savior"
The Good Shepherd Jesus
Chi-Rho "Christ" Alpha and Omega
Martyrdom many christians and missionaries in rome were martyred for their faith
Apologetics defense of faith
Constantine the Great Pagan, Roman Emperor, sees vision of Chi-Rho, issues edict of milan
Edict of Milan issued by constantine, christianity is accepted as a religion
Gratian roman emperor, flavius fratianus augustus
Saint Ambrose bishop of milan, influential ecclesiastical figure of the 4th century, started closing pagan temples, no longer called himself Pontifex Maximus
Theodosius I roman emperor, contracted serious illness which made him accept christianity and fight here, made Christianity main religion of rome, last emperor to rule over both halves of the roman empire
Clergy conduct church services (deacons, priests, bishops, patriarchs), must be celibate
Bishop greater authority, cant hear confession
Edward Gibbon english historian "the decline and gall of the roman empire"
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Marcus Aurelius last of the "five good emperors"
Commodus Roman emperor, son and successor of marcus aurelius, his sister made a conspiracy against him, he kills several people, gave Rome the name Colonia Commodiana, became a nutcase, strangled in the arena
Severus Alexander became emperor at age 14, murdered by his own troops
Ardashir the Unifier founder of the sassanid empire
Sasanian Empire
Shapur persian king
Diocletian a soldier who had risen through the ranks and seized power as roman emperor for the eastern half, divided roman empire into four parts,
Constantinople aka Byzantium, capital moved from rome to here by constantine
Western Roman Empire ruled by Maximinianus
Eastern Roman Empire ruled by Diocletian (dvided roman empire into two parts)
Diarchy division of rome into two parts with two rulers
Tetrachy division of rome into four parts with four rulers
Augustus title given to the rulers of the east and west
Caesar co-emperor
Pope Leo the Great
Attila the Hun pushed ostrogoths and visigoths into rome, stormed into the land of the ostrogoths, gothic king of alaric
Romulus Augustulus
Germanic Kingdoms takes over western roman empire
Middle Ages
Monasticism life of a monk, living in a monastery
Rule of Benedict
Clovis first king of the franks to unite all of the frankish tribes, promised his wife hed become a christian if he won a battle, first germanic christian ruler/kingdom
The Franks germanic tribes, came from rhine area, spread into belgium
Frankish Kingdom rule by single king, hereditary kingship
Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne owns all of the frankish kingdoms, unifies them, one of the most significant rulers, christian king, also called charles the great, was asked by the pope to help put down an uprising, crowned holy roman emperor
Carolingian Renaissance
Alcuin of York
Vikings sea faring, raiding people, expert navigators from scandanavian countries (sweden, norway, and denmark)
Feudalism a king owns land, he leases out the land to the dukes, who lease it out to knights, who hire farmers to work it
Manor large sum of land owned by the king
Fief division of land for permanent lease
Vassal relationship between the king and the duke, duke and the knight, knight and the farmers
Overlord overseer, head of the land
Pope head of the catholic church
Donation of Pepin gives the pope the papal states because the pope had consecrated him as king again
Papal States land given to the pope, now known as the vatican
Gregorian Reform "the church is founded by God" pope has overall say in what should happen bc he is representative of God
Lay Investiture pope is the only one who can invest the bishop, causes dispute between the pope and the holy roman emperor, they argue over who trumps the other
Church Council
Cardinal elects the pope
Papal Bull
Simony selling church offices to whoever is willing to pay the most money
Pope Gregory VII instates gregorian reform movement, says popes are representatives of God on earth, power of popes is above the power of the emperors
Holy Roman Empire empire run by the holy roman emperor, blessed by the pope
King Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor became king of the germans at age 7, dukes and people of land wanted a weaker leader so they wouldn't have to listen
Investiture Controversy pope vs holy roman emperor, efforts to consolidate imperial power
Walk to Canossa pope says king henry is no longer holy roman empire, so henry shows up outside castle of canossa dressed like a beggar asking forgiveness, pope celebrates and vows not to appoint bishops anymore
Created by: pace_sauce