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History 10

My stars from Quizlet

TermDefinition
Arabia the one million square mile peninsula that lies southeast of the Fertile Crescent
Bedouins Arab nomads
Ishmael Abraham's first son who is the father of the Arabs
Mohammed the founder of Islam
A.D. 570 the year of Mohammed's birth
Mecca the birthplace of Mohammed and the first city he conquered
Kaaba a religious building which housed a meteorite known as the Black Stone
Black Stone the sacred treasure stored at Kaaba
Allah the god of Islam
Hegira Mohammed's flight from Mecca; the turning point for Islam
Yathrib the city to which Mohammed fled; became known as "the city of the Prophet" or Medina
jihad the Muslim's name for "holy war"
Islam the religion begun by Mohammed; the name means "surrender"
Muslims followers of Islam; the name means "surrender"
Koran the Muslim holy book; the name means "recitation"
caliphs Mohammed's successors
732 Battle of Tours the vital defeat of the Muslims, important because it halted the Muslim advance into western Europe
pilgrimages large groups of people traveling from Europe to worship in the Holy Land
Seljuk Turks fierce tribe which took much of the Middle East from the Arabs in the 11th century
Battle of Manzikert the battle in which the Seljuk Turks conquered Asia Minor from the Eastern Roman Empire
1071 the year of the Battle of Manzikert; Seljuk Turks conquered Asia Minor
Pope Urban II the pope who proclaimed the beginning of crusades
1054 the year the Roman Catholic church officially split into western and eastern parts
First Crusade the crusade led by nobles which resulted in Europeans reconquering Asia Minor and Jerusalem
Alexius Comnenus the Eastern emperor during the First Crusade
Second Crusade the crusade which accomplished nothing because French and German armies were defeated before they even reached the Holy Land
Saladin the Muslim leader who reconquered Jerusalem during the Second Crusade
Third Crusade the "Crusade of Kings"; accomplished little
Richard the Lion-Hearted the English king who was a valiant leader in the Third Crusade
Fourth Crusade the crusade that never reached the Holy Land but instead attacked and robbed the city of Constantinople
1100-1300 the 200 years of the Crusades
Ottoman Turks the Turks who became the most powerful force in the Muslim world of the Middle East in the late 13th century
Mohammed II the leader of the Ottomans who captured Constantinople in 1453
capture of Constantinople by Mohammed II the event that marked the end of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453
Created by: Mariah14