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C10 Medieval Kingdom

JAHKMLHS C10 Medieval Kingdoms in Europe

feudalism This political and social order developed as the Carolingian empire declined. Lords exerted control over large territories offering land in exchange for sworn allegiance and other obligations such as military service..
knight This warrior, a heavily armed cavalryman, was usually of noble birth, who after an apprenticeship as page and squire was raised to honorable military rank and bound to chivalrous conduct.
feudal contract These unwritten rules determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal.
chivalry This code of ethics presented the ideal of civilized behavior that knights were to uphold.
vassal This person was granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord or other superior.
fief This grant from a Lord normally consisting of land to which a number of unfree peasants were attached; the land was supposed to be sufficient to support a vassal and to secure his knight service for the lord
carruca This heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare drawn by six or eight oxen easily turned over heavy clay soils. This technology led to the growth of farming villages.
serf This peasant, legally bound to the land, had to give labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord’s control.
patrician This male member of the wealthiest and one of the powerful families in Medieval Europe was often elected to public office as cities developed their own governments.
manor This medieval European agricultural estate was owned and managed by a lord overseeing a number of serfs
bourgeoisie This synonym for middle class included merchants, industrialists, and professional people
common law This uniform code developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage and replaced codes that varied from place to place
Magna Carta This document strengthened the idea that the monarch’s power was limited, not absolute
Parliament This institution of representative government begun in the 13th Century now consists of a House of Lords and a House of Co mmons
estate This social or political class with legal rights and duties, privileges and obligations represented a broad division of labor and was regarded as having definite functions.
Estates-General This legislative body in France until 1789, represented the three social or political classes of the realm (i.e., the clergy, the nobility, and the commons)
Philip II Augustus This king’s conquests and strong government made him the richest and most powerful king in Europe and prepared the way for France’s greatness in the 13th century
William This king defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Harold This king was defeated by the Normans at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Battle of Hastings This battle resulted in the French taking over in England producing a gradual merging of Anglo-Saxon and French into a new English language.
Thomas á Becket This archbishop of Canterbury was assassinated in his cathedral by four knights carrying out the king’s challenge, “Who will free me from this turbulent priest?”
Henry II This king expanded the king’s overall power while expanding the power of the royal courts but was forced to back down in his struggle with the Church.
Louis IX This king, known for trying to bring justice to his people by hearing their complaints in person, led the Seventh Crusade and died on another Crusade. He was made a saint by the Catholic Church
Philip IV This king, who expanded the royal bureaucracy and improved royal governance, created a French parliament.
Holy Roman Empire This successor to the ancient Western Roman Empire was created by the coronation of the Frankish king Charlemagne as Roman emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day in the year 800
Oleg This Viking leader, who settled in Kiev, created the Principality of Kiev and opened trade with the Byzantine empire.
Vladimir This Rus ruler married the Byzantine emperor’s sister and officially accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people.
Alexander Nevsky This Russian prince defeated a German invading army in northwestern Russia in 1242 and was made a Grand Prince by the Mongols.
Cyril This Byzantine missionary constructed a script for Slavonic in 863 translating the liturgy into Slavonic.
Methodius This Byzantine missionary, who was allowed by the pope to continue saying Mass and administering baptism in the Slavonic tongue, was finally consecrated as a bishop.
Created by: jim.haferman