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Chapter 1

Beginnings of Civilization

TermDefinition
Artifacts Ancient human made objects, such as tools and jewelry
Culture A people's unique way of life
Hominids Humans and other creatures that walk upright
Paleolithic Age Also called the Old Stone Age. Lasted from 2.5 million to 8000 B.C.
Neolithic Age Also called the New Stone Age. Lasted from 8000-3000 B.C.
Technology The way of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet needs
Homo sapiens The species name for modern humans
Nomads Highly mobile people who moved from place to place in search of food
Hunter-gatherers Nomadic groups whose food supply depends of hunting animals and gathering plant foods
Neolithic Revolution Major change in human life caused by the introduction of farming
Slash-and-burn farming System in which people cut down trees or grass and burn them to clear a field for farming. The ash serves as fertilizer
Domestication The taming of animals for human use
River Valleys Regions where farming developed
Civilization A complex structure made up of five characteristics
Specialization The development of of skills in a specific kind of work
Artisans Skilled workers that create goods by hand
Scribes Professional record keepers
Cuneiform A system of writing that consists of wedge shaped symbols
Bronze Age Refers to the time when people began using bronze instead of stone or copper to create tools and weapons
Ur Name of one of the earliest cities in Sumer
Barter Trading goods and services without money
Ziggurat A tiered, pyramid-shaped monument in Sumerian culture
Five characteristics of civilization Specialized workers, Record keeping, Advanced technology, Advanced cities, Complex institutions
Created by: tj03tayl