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Chapter 14

The Spread of Chinese Civ.: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

TermDefinition
Taika Reforms Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji, The Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
Fujiwara Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Bushi Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public work projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
Seppuku Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Taira Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars.
Minamoto Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and esyablished military gvernment (bakufu) in 12th-century Japan.
Gempei Wars Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
Bakufu Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gemperi wars; centered at kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Shoguns Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan).
Hojo Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers who claimed to rule in the name of Japanese emperor Kyoto.
Ashikaga Takuaji Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashakaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Ashikaga Shogunate Replaced the kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority.
Daimyos Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini states.
Choson Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han armies 109 B.C.E.
Koguryo Tribal people of northern Korea; established and independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula in 37 B.C.E.; began a process of Sinification.
Silla Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Paekche Independent Korean kingdom in southwestern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th centruy.
Sinification Extensive adoption of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Yi Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of MOngol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
Khmers Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
Trung Sisters Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out 39 C.E.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Chams Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Nguyen Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Trinh Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in south.
Created by: briannaardz14