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AP WH Ch 13-14

Tang & Song China / Japan, Korea, Vietnam

TermDefinition
Yangdi (13) second Sui ruler; restored Confucian examination system; constructed canal system; assassinated in 618.
Ministry of Public Rites (13) administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty.
Jinshi (13) title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office.
Pure-Land Buddhism (13) emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism, popular among masses of Chinese society.
Chan Buddhism (13) called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Zen Buddhism (13) called Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Empress Wu (13) Tang ruler 690–705; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Wuzong (13) Tang emperor (841–847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism.
Yang Guifei (13) royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.
Liao Dynasty (13) founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China.
Khitans (13) founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture.
Neo-Confucians (13) revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song-era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Xi Xia (13) kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.
Wang Anshi (13) Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song ruler in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Jurchens (13) founders of Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee south.
Southern Song (13) smaller surviving dynasty (1127–1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history.
Grand Canal (13) great canal system begun by Yangdi; joined Yellow River region to the Yangtze basin
Junks (13) Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Flying Money (13) Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency.
Footbinding (13) male-imposed practice to mutilate women’s feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household.
Li Bo (13) most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Taika Reforms (14) attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji (14) written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
Fujiwara (14) mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Bushi (14) regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Samurai (14) mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
Seppuku (14) ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor.
Minamoto (14) defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th-century Japan.
Bakufu (14) military government established by the Minamoto following Gumpei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Gempei Wars (14) waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira.
Shoguns (14) military leaders of the bakufu.
Ashikaga Shogunate (14) replaced the Kamakura regime and ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority.
Daimyos (14) warlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
Choson (14) earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han in 109 B.C.E.
Koguryo (14) tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Sinification (14) extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions.
Khmers (14) Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by northern government at Hanoi.
Trung Sisters (14) leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 C.E.; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society.
Chams (14) Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Nguyen (14) southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that challenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi.
Created by: wm0397