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Chapter 14.

The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

TermDefinition
Taika reforms Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Tale of Genji, The Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society
Fujiwara Japanese aristocratic family in mid 9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
bushi Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects and collected revenues; built up private armies
samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
seppuku Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
Taira Powerful Japanese family in 11th to 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars
Minamoto Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military gov. (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
Gempei Wars Waged five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
bakufu Military gov. established by the Minamoto following the Gempei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military gov. and samurai
shoguns Military leaders of the bakufu (military govs in Japan)
Hojo Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers who claimed to rule in name of Japanese emperor at Kyoto
Ashikaga Takauji Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1537; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino
Ashikaga Shogunate Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336-1537; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
daimyos Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and distruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states
Choson Earliest Korean kingdom conquered by Han armies in 109 b.c.e.
Koguryo Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula in 37 b.c.e.; began a process of Sinification
Silla Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea
Paekche Independent Korean kingdom in southwestern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century
Sinification Extensive adoption of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Yi Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
Khmers Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at the time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Trung sisters Leaders of on of the frequent peasant rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese woman in indigenous society
Chams Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south
Nguyen Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue
Trinh Dynasty that ruled in north Vitenam at Hanoi, 1553 to 1772; rival of Nguyen family in south
Created by: ArayanziP