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Chapter 13-14 Vocab

Yangdi Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassination in 618.
Li Yuan (566-635) Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Chang'an Capital of tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any city in the world at that time.
Ministry of Rites Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
jinshi Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became eligible for high office
pure land Buddhism Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society
Chan Buddhism Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Zen Buddhism Known as Chan Buddhism in Chinese; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690-705 CE in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Wuzong Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influenced of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology
Xuanzong Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, although he encouraged overexpansion
Yang Guifei (719-756) Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt
Zhao Kuangyin (960-976) Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent
Liao dynasty founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China
Khitans Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; military superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century.
Zhu Xi (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
neo-Confucians Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangut Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226
Xi Xia Kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Wang Anshi Confucian scholar an chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
Jurchens Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south
Jin Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by the Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234
Southern Song Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history
Grand Canal Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long
junks Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
flying money Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency
footbinding Practice in Chinese society of mutilating women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household
Li Bo Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings
(14) Taika reforms Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
(14) "The Tale of Genji" Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society
(14) bushi regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
(14) Samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
(14) seppuku ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor
(14) Taira Powerful Japanese family in the 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempai Wars.
(14) Minamoto Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempai wars and established military government (bakafu) in 12th century Japan.
(14) Gempai Wars for 5 years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
(14) bakafu Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempai wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real pwer resided in military government and samurai.
(14) shoguns military leaders of the bakufu
(14) Hojo a warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor at Kyoto
(14) Ashikaga Takuaji member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336-1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino
(14) Ashikaga Shogunate replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority.
(14) daimyos warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states
(14) Choson Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han armies in 109 BCE
(14) Koguryo tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification
(14) Silla Korean kingdom in southeast; defeated Koguryo and their Tang allies; submitted and became a vassal of the Tang and paid tribute; ruled Korea from 668
(14) Paekche Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
(14) Sinification Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
(14) Yi Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
(14) Khmers Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
(14) Trung Sisters Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
(14) Chams Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
(14) Nguyen Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
(14) Trinh Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533-1772; rivals of Nguyen family in south
Created by: Oliver64