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vocabulary 13 & 14

TermDefinition
yangdi second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Li Yuan 566-635 Also known as Duke of tang; mister for yangdi; took over empire following assassination of yangdi;, first emperor of tang dynasty; took imperial title of gaozu
changan Capital of tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time
ministry of rites administred examinations to students from chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
jinshi title grante to students who passed the the most difficult chinese examination on all of chinese literature; became immediatly dignataries and eligible for high office
pure land buddhism emphasized salvationist aspects of chinese buddhism; popular among mases of chinese society
chan buddhism known as zen in japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beaut; popular with members of elite chinese
zen buddhism known as zen in china; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beaut; popular with members of elite chinese
empress wu tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in china supporeted buddhist establishment, tried to elevate buddhism to state religio; had multisorystatues of buddha created
wuzong chinese emperor of tang dynasty who openly persecuted buddhism by destroying monasteries in 84; reduced influece of chinese buddhism in favor of confucian ideology
Xuanzong leading chinese emperor of the tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 75, although he encouraged overexpansion
yang guifei royal concubine during reign of xuanzon; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt
zhao kuangyin 960-976 founder of song dynasty; originally a general fall of tang; took of taizu failled to overcome northern liao dynasty that remainded independent
liao dynasty Founded in 907 by Nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; mantained independence from Song dynasty in China
khitans Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
zhu xi (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
neo confucian Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangut Rulers of the Xi Xia kingdom of northwest china; one of the regional kingdoms during the period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226
Xi Xia Kingdom of the Tangut people, north of Song Kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
wang anshi Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
jurchens Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south
jin Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by the Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234
southern song Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history
junks Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
flying money Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
footbinding Practice in chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
li bo (701-762) Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings
taika reforms Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
The tale of genji Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society
fujiwara Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
bushi Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
seppuku Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
taira Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars
minamoto Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th-century Japan
gempei wars Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
bakufu Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
shoguns Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan)
hojo Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers who claimed to rule in name of Japanese emperor at Kyoto
ashikaga takajui Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino
Ashikaga Shogunate Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
daimyos Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states
choson Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 BCE
koguryo Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula in 37 BCE; adopted cultural Sinification
silla Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
paekche Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century
sinification Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam
yi Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
khmers Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
trung sisters Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society
chams Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south
nguyen Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue
trinh Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in south
Created by: humbertofg